Abbreviations & Bibliography


Historical spellings are taken from a wide range of sources, which are identified within the individual place-name record. You will also see abbreviations for the main languages found in Berwickshire place-names, as follows:

Br = Brittonic
Fr = French
G = Gaelic
La = Latin
OE = Old English
ON = Old Norse
Sc = Scots
SSE = Scottish Standard English

In addition, place-name elements that comprise existing names are designated as follows:

en = existing place-name
pn = personal name (including first names and surnames)


(references and abbreviations cited in the database but not listed under Browse Place-Names: Source)

Allan, Archibald, 1900, History of Channelkirk (Edinburgh).

Baldwin, John, 1997, Edinburgh, Lothians and Borders, 2nd edn (Edinburgh) (1st edn Exploring Scotland’s

heritage: Lothian and the Borders Edinburgh 1985).

Barrow, G. W. S., 1980, The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History (Oxford).

Barrow, G. W. S., 1983, ‘The childhood of Scottish Christianity: a note on some place-name evidence’,

Scottish Studies 27, 1–15.

Bartlett, Robert, 2003 (ed. and trans.) The Miracles of St Æbbe of Coldingham and St Margaret of Scotland (Oxford).

Binnie, G. A. C., 1995, The Churches and Graveyards of Berwickshire (Ladykirk).

Black, George F., 1946, The Surnames of Scotland, Their Origin, Meaning and History (New York; reprinted in paperback, Edinburgh 1996).

BLITON: The Brittonic Language in the Old North: A Guide to the Place-Name Evidence, 3 vols, Alan G. James, 2014, published online on the Scottish Place-Name Society website at

Braithwaite, Michael E., 2016, Howes and Knowes: an introduction to Berwickshire place-names (The Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club).

Breeze, A., 2000, ‘The names of Bellshill, Carmichael, Lauder, and Soutra’, Innes Review 51, 72–9.

Breeze, Andrew, 2004, ‘Brittonic place-names from south-west Scotland, part 5: Minnygap and Minnigaff’, TDGNHAS 78, 121–23.

Broun, Dauvit, 2000, ‘The church of St Andrews and its foundation legend in the early twelfth century: recovering the full text of version A of the foundation legend’, in Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland 500–1297, ed. S. Taylor (Dublin), 108–14.

Byrom, Bernard, 2011, Old Duns, Greenlaw and Chirnside with villages of the Merse and Lammermuir (Catrine).

Byrom, Bernard, 2013, Old Lauder & Oxton (Catrine).

C&DLHS: Coldstream and District Local History Society, 2010, Second to None: A History of Coldstream (Kelso).

Carr, Alexander Allan, (Surgeon), 1836, A History of Coldingham Priory (containing a Survey of the Civil and Ecclesiastical History of the Eastern Portion of Berwickshire, anciently termed Coldinghamshire: With a Sketch of its Geological Structure – a Catalogue of its Rarer Botanical Productions, and Copies of the Principal Charters and Documents connected with the Priory) (Edinburgh and London).

CGH: Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae vol. i, ed. M. A. O’Brien, Dublin 1976.

Charles, B. G., 1992, The Place-Names of Pembrokeshire, 2 vols (Aberystwyth).

Clancy, Thomas Owen, 2013, ‘Many strata: English and Scots place-names in Scotland’, in Perceptions of Place: Twenty-First-Century Interpretations of English Place-Name Studies, ed. Jayne Carroll and David N. Parsons (Nottingham), 283–319.

Cole, Ann, 1982, ‘Topography, hydrology and place-names in the chalklands of southern England: cumb and denu’, Nomina 6, 73–87.

Cowan, I. B., 1967, The Parishes of Medieval Scotland, Scottish Record Society vol. 93.

Cowan, I. B., and Easson, D. E., 1976, Medieval Religious Houses Scotland (2nd edn; London and New York; first published as Easson 1957).

Cruft, Kitty et al., 2006 (repr. 2008), The Buildings of Scotland: Borders (New Haven CT and London).

Curtis, Liz (forthcoming, 2018), ‘A blink on Blinkbonny’, JSNS 12.

CSD2: Concise Scots Dictionary, 2nd edn (Edinburgh 2017).

CSMPC: Corpus of Scottish Medieval Parish Churches,

DOE A–H: Cameron, Angus, Amos, Ashley Crandell, and Healey, Antoinette DiPaolo, 2016, Dictionary of Old English: A to H Online (Toronto).

Donnelly, Joseph, 1989, ‘The earliest Scottish charters?’, SHR 68, 1–22.

Donnelly, Joseph, 2000, ‘In the territory of Auchencrow: long continuity or late development in early Scottish field-names?’, PSAS 130, 743–72.

DOST: Craigie, William, et al. (ed.), 1931–2002, A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue. 12 vols. (Oxford) available online at

DSL: Dictionary of the Scots Language, online resource which combines DOST and SND,

Duncan, A. A. M., 1958, ‘The earliest Scottish charters’, SHR 37, 103–35.

Duncan, A. A. M., 1999, ‘Yes, the earliest Scottish charters’, SHR 78 (1), 1–38.

Dunlop, Leonie, 2016, ‘Breaking old and new ground: a comparative study of coastal and inland naming in Berwickshire’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

Dunlop, Leonie, and Hough, Carole, 2014, ‘Colour terms in the names of coastal and inland features: A study of four Berwickshire parishes’, in Colour Studies: A broad spectrum, ed. Wendy Anderson, Carole P. Biggam, Carole Hough and Christian Kay (Glasgow), 307–22.

Easson, D. E., 1957, Medieval Religious Houses Scotland (Longmans, Green and Co.: London, New York and Toronto; 2nd edn Cowan and Easson 1976).

Ekwall, Eilert, 1928, English River-Names (Oxford).

Ekwall, Eilert, 1960, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, 4th edn (Oxford; 1st edn Oxford 1936).

EPNE: Smith, A. H., 1956, English Place-Name Elements, 2 vols (English Place-Name Society, 25–26) (Cambridge).

Field, John, 1972, English Field Names: A Dictionary (Newton Abbot; paperback reprint with additional bibliography, Gloucester, 1989).

Fox, Bethany, 2007, ‘The P-Celtic place-names of North-East England and South-East Scotland’, The Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwestern Europe 10 (online journal with interactive distribution maps at

Gelling, Margaret, and Cole, Ann, 2000, The Landscape of Place-Names (Stamford; reprinted with corrections, 2003 and 2014).

Gilbert, John M., 2011, ‘Place-names and managed woods in medieval Scotland’, JSNS 5, 35–56; online at

Gilbert, John M., 2012, ‘Medieval woodland management in southern Scotland’, TDGNHAS 86 (Third Series), 77–117; at

Gledhill, Jonathan, 2009, ‘Political society in South-East Scotland 1094–1434’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Lancaster; online at

GPC: Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language, 4 vols (Cardiff 1967–2002).

Grant, Alison, 2012, ‘Scottish place-names. Dod’, Scottish Language Dictionaries Newsletter, Spring 2012 online at

Grant, Alison, 2013, ‘Buss: “if we shake the bushes of the sea, then two come along at once: an etymological muddle”’, online at

Griffiths, John, 2007, Old Coldstream and Cornhill (Catrine).

Gude and Godlie Ballatis: The Gude and Godlie Ballatis, ed. Alasdair A. MacDonald, Scottish Text Society 2015

Hall, Derek, 2006, Scottish Monastic Landscapes (Stroud).

Hamilton, Elsa Catherine, 2003, ‘The acts of the earls of Dunbar relating to Scotland c.1124–c.1289: a study of Lordship in Scotland in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow; online at

Hamilton, Elsa, 2010, Mighty Subjects: The Dunbar Earls in Scotland c.1072–1289 (Edinburgh).

Hardie, R. P., 1942, The Roads of Mediaeval Lauderdale (Edinburgh).

Hardy, James, et al., 1900, The Session Book of Bunkle and Preston, 1665–1690 (transcribed and annotated by the late James Hardy, LL.D. With preface by the late Rev. George Gunn. Historical and descriptive account of Bunkle and Preston, ed. by J. Ferguson, Duns; and appendix by Charles S. Romanes) (printed for the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club by H. H. Blair, Alnwick).

Hedley, W. P., 1968–70, Northumberland Families, 2 vols (Newcastle).

Hough, Carole, 1999, ‘The trumpeters of Bemersyde: a Scottish placename reconsidered’, Names 47.3, 257–68.

Hough, Carole, 2000, ‘Carolside in Berwickshire and Carelholpit in Lincolnshire’, Nomina 23, 79–86.

Hough, Carole, 2004, ‘Chilton and other place-names from Old English cild’, Journal of the English Place-Name Society 36, 63–82.

Hough, Carole, 2009, ‘“Find the lady”: the term lady in English and Scottish place-names’, in Names in Multi-Lingual, Multi-Cultural and Multi-Ethnic Contact: Proceedings of the 23rd ICOS, ed. Wolfgang Ahrens, Sheila Embleton and André Lapierre (York University, Toronto), 511–18.

Hough, Carole, 2010, ‘The name-type Maid(en)well’, Nomina 33, 27–44.

Houldsworth, Nigel, 2001, Fisherman’s Map of Salmon Pools on the River Tweed.

JSNS: Journal of Scottish Name Studies

James, Alan G., 2010, ‘Scotland’s –ham and –ingham names: a reconsideration’, JSNS 4, 103–30.

James, Alan G., 2014: see BLITON.

Jamieson, Dictionary: An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, by John Jamieson (1759–1838), first published in 2 vols, Edinburgh 1808, with a two-volume Supplement in 1825, then in various editions and revisions throughout the nineteenth century. For full details, see Rennie 2012.

Johnston, James B., 1940, The Place-Names of Berwickshire (The Place-Names of Scotland Series, No.1, published by the RSGS, Edinburgh).

Kennington, Fred, 2005, As Spoken in Berwick: The Unique Dialect (Berwick).

King, Jacob, ‘Analytical tools for toponymy: their application to Scottish hydronymy’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh; online at

Lang, Theo (ed.), 1957, The Border Counties, The Queen’s Scotland series (London).

Macdougall, Norman, 1989, James IV (Edinburgh, re-issued East Linton 1997; and in paperback Edinburgh 2006).

Mack, J. L., 1924, The border line from the Solway Firth to the North Sea, along the marches of Scotland and England (Edinburgh and London).

MacKinlay, J. M., 1914, Ancient Church Dedications in Scotland: Non-scriptural (Edinburgh).

Márkus, Gilbert, 2012, The Place-Names of Bute (Donington) (PNBute).

Maxwell, Sir Herbert, 1909, The Story of the Tweed (London).

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1967, ‘Scottish Place-Names: 29. Scandinavian Personal Names in the Place-Names of South-East Scotland’, Scottish Studies 11, 223–36.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1969, ‘Some Problems of Chronology in Southern Scotland’, Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Onomastic Sciences (London 1966), 340–47 (Louvain).

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1976, Scottish Place-Names (London; second impression with additional information 1979; slightly revised edition with new bibliography and preface, Edinburgh 2001).

OED: Oxford English Dictionary online at

OSA: The [Old] Statistical Account of Scotland 1791–99, ed. Sir John Sinclair (Edinburgh; reissued county by county in 20 vols, with new introductions, 1978). Unless otherwise stated, references are to the original edition.

PASE: The Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England database online at

PNBute: The Place-Names of Bute. See Márkus 2012.

PNF: The Place-Names of Fife. See Taylor with Márkus 2006–2012. Fife place-name data online at

PoMS:‘The People of Medieval Scotland 1093–1314’, a database of all known people of Scotland between 1093 and 1314 mentioned in over 8600 contemporary documents, online at

PSAS: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland

Rennie, Susan, 2012, Jamieson’s Dictionary of Scots: the story of the first historical dictionary of the Scots language (Oxford).

RPS: Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707, University of St Andrews, online at

SAEC: Anderson, Alan O., 1991, Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1280 (Stamford).

Scott, Margaret R., 2003, ‘The Germanic toponymicon of Southern Scotland: place-name elements and their contribution to the lexicon and onomasticon’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow; online at

Shennan, H., 1892, Boundaries of Counties and Parishes in Scotland (Edinburgh), online on scotlandsplaces website.

SHR: Scottish Historical Review

Smith, I. M., 1990, ‘The archaeological background to the emergent kingdoms of the Tweed Basin in the Early Historic period’, 2 vols, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Durham; online at

Smith, Sally, 1999 (repr. 2005), Cockburnspath: A History of a People and a Place (Dunglass Mill).

SND: Grant, William, et al. (ed.), 1931–76, The Scottish National Dictionary. 10 vols (Edinburgh) available online at:

Stones, E. L. G., and Simpson, Grant G., 1978, Edward I and the Throne of Scotland 1290–1296: An edition of the record sources for the Great Cause, 2 vols (Oxford).

Strang, Charles Alexander, 1994, Borders and Berwick: An Illustrated Architectural Guide to the Scottish Borders and Tweed Valley (Edinburgh).

Stringer, K. J., 2000, ‘Acts of Lordship: the records of the Lords of Galloway to 1234’, in Freedom and Authority: Historical and Historiographical Essays Presented to Grant G. Simpson, ed. Terry Brotherstone and David Ditchburn (East Linton), 203–34.

Taylor, Simon, 1999, ‘Seventh-century Iona abbots in Scottish place-names’, in Spes Scotorum Hope of the Scots, ed. D. Broun and T. O. Clancy (Edinburgh), 35–70.

Taylor, Simon, 2004, ‘Scandinavians in central Scotland: -place-names and their context’, in Sagas, Saints and Settlements, ed. Gareth Williams and Paul Bibire (Leiden, Netherlands), 125–45.

Taylor, Simon, 2007, ‘The Rock of The Irishmen: an early place-name tale from Fife and Kinross’, in West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement before 1300, ed. Beverley Ballin Smith, Simon Taylor and Gareth Williams (Leiden and Boston), 497–514.

Taylor, Simon, 2008, ‘Pilkembare and Pluck the Craw: verbal place-names in Scotland’, in A Commodity of Good Names: Essays in Honour of Margaret Gelling, ed. O. J. Padel and David N. Parsons (Donington), 274–85.

Taylor, Simon, 2017, ‘Yes, some of the earliest recorded Scottish place-names’, Scottish Place-Name News no. 43 (Autumn), 3–8.

Taylor, Simon, forthcoming, ‘From kestrels to foul marshes: light on a parish in the Merse c.1200’, in Alasdair Ross tribute volume, ed. Richard Oram et al. (Brepols).

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2006, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 1 (Donington) (PNF 1).

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2008, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 2 (Central Fife between Leven and Eden) (Donington) (PNF 2).

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2009, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 3 (St Andrews and the East Neuk) (Donington) (PNF 3).

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2010, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 4 (North Fife between Eden and Tay) (Donington) (PNF 4).

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2012, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 5 (Discussion, Glossaries and Edited Texts, with Addenda and Corrigenda of Volumes 1–4) (Donington) (PNF 5).

TDGNHAS: Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society

Thorson, Stephanie M., 1998, ‘Adam Abell’s “The riot or quheill of tyme”: an edition’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of St Andrews; online at

VEPN: Parsons, David N. et al., 1997– , The Vocabulary of English Place-Names, 3 fascicles so far published (Nottingham). A draft version of letter M is available online at

Wager, Sarah, 2017, ‘The meaning of lēah’, Journal of the English Place-Name Society 49, 95–126.

Watson, William J., 1926, The History of the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland (Edinburgh and London; reprinted several times, most recently with an Introduction and Watson bibliography by Simon Taylor, Edinburgh 2004, 2011).

Watts, Victor, 2002, A Dictionary of County Durham Place-Names (Nottingham).

Waugh, William, 2017, ‘Cleikhimin’, Scottish Place-Name News no. 42 (Spring), 2–3.

Wedderburn, John, 1578, Ane compendious buik of godlie psalmes and spirituall sangis (printed by John Ross for Henry Charteris (Iohne Ros for Henrie Charteris), Edinburgh). This has restricted availability online at the following address (starting at the frontispiece):

Whaley, Diana, 2017, ‘A far-travelled word: Old Norse skeid “racecourse, running track” in early literature and place-names’, in Die Faszination des Verborgenen und seine Entschlüsselung – Rāđi saR kunni: Beiträge zur Runologie, skandinavistischen Mediävistik und germanischen Sprachwissenschaft, ed. Jana Krüger, Vivian Busch, Katharina Seidel, Christiane Zimmermann and Ute Zimmermann (Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde – Ergänzungsbände 101) (Berlin).

Whittington, Graeme, 1991, ‘Place-names in Northern Fife’, Nomina 13, 13–23.

Williamson, Eila, 2015, ‘“hence the name”: Berwickshire parishes along the Anglo-Scottish Border as described in the Ordnance Survey Name Books’, JSNS 9, 83–96.

Williamson, May G., 1942, ‘The non-Celtic place-names of the Scottish border counties’, unpublished PhD thesis, Edinburgh University, online at

Wood, Lawson, 2009, Old Coldingham & St. Abbs (Catrine).

Wood, Lawson, 2010, Old Eyemouth and Burnmouth (Catrine).

Younger, John, 1864, River Angling for Salmon and Trout, with a memoir and list of the Tweed Salmon Casts (Kelso and Edinburgh).