Abbreviations & Bibliography


Historical spellings are taken from a wide range of sources, which are identified within the individual place-name record. You will also see abbreviations for the main languages found in Berwickshire place-names, as follows:

Br = Brittonic
Fr = French
G = Gaelic
La = Latin
OE = Old English
ON = Old Norse
Sc = Scots
SSE = Scottish Standard English

In addition, place-name elements that comprise existing names are designated as follows:

en = existing place-name
pn = personal name (including first names and surnames)


(references and abbreviations cited in the database but not listed under Browse Place-Names: Source)

Aitchison, Nick, 2016, ‘The Laich o’Menteith: reassessing the origins of the Lake of Menteith’, Journal of Scottish Name Studies 10, 1–24.

Allan, Archibald, 1900, History of Channelkirk (Edinburgh).

Anon, 1912–15, ‘Reports of the Meetings of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club for 1912’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 22, 17–43.

Anon, 1929–31, ‘Reports of Meetings for the Year 1930’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 27, 166–87.

Anon, 1932–34, ‘Reports of Meetings for the Year 1932’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 28, 12–26.

Baldwin, John, 1997, Edinburgh, Lothians and Borders, 2nd edn (Edinburgh) (1st edn Exploring Scotland’s heritage: Lothian and the Borders Edinburgh 1985).

Barrow, G. W. S., 1978, ‘Some problems in twelfth and thirteenth-century Scottish history – a genealogical approach’, The Scottish Genealogist 25, 97–112.

Barrow, G. W. S., 1980, The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History (Oxford).

Barrow, G. W. S., 1981, ‘Popular Courts in Early Medieval Scotland: Some Suggested Placename Evidence’, Scottish Studies 25, 1–24.

Barrow, G. W. S., 1983, ‘The childhood of Scottish Christianity: a note on some place-name evidence’, Scottish Studies 27, 1–15.

Bartlett, Robert, 2003 (ed. and trans.) The Miracles of St Æbbe of Coldingham and St Margaret of Scotland (Oxford).

Biggam, C. P., 1998, Grey in Old English: An Interdisciplinary Semantic Study (London).

Binnie, G. A. C., 1995, The Churches and Graveyards of Berwickshire (Ladykirk).

Black, George F., 1946, The Surnames of Scotland, Their Origin, Meaning and History (New York; reprinted in paperback, Edinburgh 1996).

BLITON: The Brittonic Language in the Old North: A Guide to the Place-Name Evidence, 3 vols, Alan G. James, 2014, updated 2020, published online on the Scottish Place-Name Society website at

Bosworth-Toller: Bosworth, Joseph, and Toller, T. Northcote, 1898, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Supplement by T. N. Toller 1921; Enlarged Addenda and Corrigenda by Alistair Campbell 1972. (Oxford). Dictionary and Supplement online at

Braithwaite, Michael, 2014, A Short Flora of Berwickshire (Clarilaw). Book privately circulated, reissued as PDF with minor corrections 2015 – available online on Internet Archive at

Braithwaite, Michael E., 2016, Howes and Knowes: an introduction to Berwickshire place-names (The Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club).

Breeze, A., 2000, ‘The names of Bellshill, Carmichael, Lauder, and Soutra’, Innes Review 51, 72–79.

Breeze, Andrew, 2004, ‘Brittonic place-names from south-west Scotland, part 5: Minnygap and Minnigaff’, TDGNHAS 78, 121–23.

Broun, Dauvit, 2000, ‘The church of St Andrews and its foundation legend in the early twelfth century: recovering the full text of version A of the foundation legend’, in Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland 500–1297, ed. S. Taylor (Dublin), 108–14.

Byrom, Bernard, 2011, Old Duns, Greenlaw and Chirnside with villages of the Merse and Lammermuir (Catrine).

Byrom, Bernard, 2013, Old Lauder & Oxton (Catrine).

C&DLHS: Coldstream and District Local History Society, 2010, Second to None: A History of Coldstream (Kelso).

Cameron, Kenneth, 1996, English Place Names, new edn (London).

Campbell, A., 1959, Old English Grammar (Oxford).

Carr, Alexander Allan, (Surgeon), 1836, A History of Coldingham Priory (containing a Survey of the Civil and Ecclesiastical History of the Eastern Portion of Berwickshire, anciently termed Coldinghamshire: With a Sketch of its Geological Structure – a Catalogue of its Rarer Botanical Productions, and Copies of the Principal Charters and Documents connected with the Priory) (Edinburgh and London).

Cavill, Paul, 2018, A New Dictionary of English Field-Names (Nottingham).

CGH: Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae vol. i, ed. M. A. O’Brien, Dublin 1976.

Charles, B. G., 1992, The Place-Names of Pembrokeshire, 2 vols (Aberystwyth).

Clancy, Thomas Owen, 2013, ‘Many strata: English and Scots place-names in Scotland’, in Perceptions of Place: Twenty-First-Century Interpretations of English Place-Name Studies, ed. Jayne Carroll and David N. Parsons (Nottingham), 283–319.

Coates, Richard, 2006, ‘Chesterblade, Somerset, with a reflection on the element chester’, Journal of the English Place-Name Society 38, 5–12.

Coates, Richard, and Breeze, Andrew, 2000, Celtic Voices, English Places: Studies of the Celtic Impact on Place-Names in England (Stamford).

Cole, Ann, 1982, ‘Topography, hydrology and place-names in the chalklands of southern England: cumb and denu’, Nomina 6, 73–87.

Cole, Ann, 1992, ‘Distribution and use of the Old English place-name mere-tūnJournal of the English Place-Name Society 24, 31–41.

Cowan, I. B., 1967, The Parishes of Medieval Scotland, Scottish Record Society vol. 93.

Cowan, I. B., and Easson, D. E., 1976, Medieval Religious Houses Scotland (2nd edn; London and New York; first published as Easson 1957).

Cox, Barrie, 1973, ‘The significance of the distribution of English place-names in –hām in the Midlands and East Anglia’, Journal of the English Place-Name Society 5, 15–73.

Cruft, Kitty et al., 2006 (repr. 2008), The Buildings of Scotland: Borders (New Haven CT and London).

CSD2: Concise Scots Dictionary, 2nd edn (Edinburgh 2017).

CSMPC: Corpus of Scottish Medieval Parish Churches,

Curtis, Liz, 2018, ‘A blink on Blinkbonny’, JSNS 12, 41–56.

Dixon, Norman, 1947, ‘Place-Names of Midlothian’, unpublished PhD thesis, Edinburgh University. Published 2009 in digital form with introductory notes by S. Taylor; published 2011 in hard copy by the Scottish Place-Name Society.

DLV: Rollason, David, and Rollason, Lynda (ed.), 2007, The Durham Liber Vitae: London, British Library, MS Cotton Domitian A.VII, 3 vols (London).

Dodgson, J. McN., 1970, The Place-Names of Cheshire Part I (English Place-Name Society, 44) (Cambridge).

DOE A–I: Cameron, Angus, Amos, Ashley Crandell, and Healey, Antoinette DiPaolo, 2018, Dictionary of Old English: A to I Online (Toronto).

DOEWC:  Healey, Antonette diPaolo, with John Price Wilkin and Xin Xiang (compilers), 2009, Dictionary of Old English Web Corpus (Toronto).

Donnelly, Joseph, 1989, ‘The earliest Scottish charters?’, SHR 68, 1–22.

Donnelly, Joseph, 2000, ‘In the territory of Auchencrow: long continuity or late development in early Scottish field-names?’, PSAS 130, 743–72.

DOST: Craigie, William, et al. (ed.), 1931–2002, A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue. 12 vols. (Oxford) available online at

Draper, Simon, 2009, ‘Burh place-names in Anglo-Saxon England’, Journal of the English Place-Name Society 41, 103–18.

DSL: Dictionary of the Scots Language, online resource which combines DOST and SND,

Duncan, A. A. M., 1958, ‘The earliest Scottish charters’, SHR 37, 103–35.

Duncan, A. A. M., 1999, ‘Yes, the earliest Scottish charters’, SHR 78 (1), 1–38.

Dunlop, Leonie, 2016, ‘Breaking old and new ground: a comparative study of coastal and inland naming in Berwickshire’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

Dunlop, Leonie, and Hough, Carole, 2014, ‘Colour terms in the names of coastal and inland features: A study of four Berwickshire parishes’, in Colour Studies: A broad spectrum, ed. Wendy Anderson, Carole P. Biggam, Carole Hough and Christian Kay (Glasgow), 307–22.

Easson, D. E., 1957, Medieval Religious Houses Scotland (Longmans, Green and Co.: London, New York and Toronto; 2nd edn Cowan and Easson 1976).

Ekwall, Eilert, 1922, The Place-Names of Lancashire (Manchester).

Ekwall, Eilert, 1928, English River-Names (Oxford).

Ekwall, Eilert, 1960, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, 4th edn (Oxford; 1st edn Oxford 1936).

Elliot, Grace A., 1977–80, ‘Forgotten industries of Berwickshire’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 41, 1–12.

Elliot, W. Ryle, 1953–55, ‘Notes on the Mote Hill and Castle Law’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 33, 113–18.

EPNE: Smith, A. H., 1956, English Place-Name Elements, 2 vols (English Place-Name Society, 25–26) (Cambridge).

Falconer, Allan A., 1932–34, ‘The wolf in Berwickshire’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 28, 103–05.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian, 1999, ‘By-names’, in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. Michael Lapidge (Oxford), 77–78.

Ferguson, John, 1892–93, ‘Duns, Nisbet, and Fogo’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 14, 50–80.

Field, John, 1972, English Field Names: A Dictionary (Newton Abbot; paperback reprint with additional bibliography, Gloucester, 1989).

Forssner, Thorvald, 1916, Continental-Germanic Personal Names in England in Old and Middle English Times (Uppsala).

Fox, Bethany, 2007, ‘The P-Celtic place-names of North-East England and South-East Scotland’, The Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwestern Europe 10 (online journal with interactive distribution maps at

Gammeltoft, Peder, 2001, “‘I sauh a tour on a toft, tryelyche i-maket”: on Place-Names in –toft, –tote and –tobhta from Shetland to the Isle of Man’, Nomina 24, 17–32.

Gelling, Margaret, and Cole, Ann, 2000, The Landscape of Place-Names (Stamford; reprinted with corrections, 2003 and 2014).

Gilbert, John M., 2011, ‘Place-names and managed woods in medieval Scotland’, JSNS 5, 35–56; online at

Gilbert, John M., 2012, ‘Medieval woodland management in southern Scotland’, TDGNHAS 86 (Third Series), 77–117; online at

Gledhill, Jonathan, 2009, ‘Political society in South-East Scotland 1094–1434’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Lancaster; online at

GPC: Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language, 4 vols (Cardiff 1967–2002).

Grannd, Dàibhidh MacGriogar, 2022, ‘Hill-Terms in the Place-Names of Berwickshire’, PhD thesis, University of Glasgow; online at

Graham, Angus, 1961–62, ‘Heriot’s Dyke’, PSAS 95, 227–40.

Grant, Alison, 2012, ‘Scottish place-names. Dod’, Scottish Language Dictionaries Newsletter, Spring 2012 online at

Grant, Alison, 2013, ‘Buss: “if we shake the bushes of the sea, then two come along at once: an etymological muddle”’, online at

Griffiths, John, 2007, Old Coldstream and Cornhill (Catrine).

Gude and Godlie Ballatis: The Gude and Godlie Ballatis, ed. Alasdair A. MacDonald, Scottish Text Society 2015.

Hall, Derek, 2006, Scottish Monastic Landscapes (Stroud).

Hamilton, Elsa Catherine, 2003, ‘The acts of the earls of Dunbar relating to Scotland c.1124–c.1289: a study of Lordship in Scotland in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow; online at

Hamilton, Elsa, 2010, Mighty Subjects: The Dunbar Earls in Scotland c.1072–1289 (Edinburgh).

Hardie, R. P., 1942, The Roads of Mediaeval Lauderdale (Edinburgh).

Hardy, James, 1876–78, ‘On the Estate of Lees, in the Parish of Coldstream, Berwickshire’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 8, 275–77.

Hardy, James, 1879–81, ‘Report of the Meetings of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club for the year 1879’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 9, 6–56.

Hardy, James, 1879–81, ‘Report of the Meetings of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club for the year 1880’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 9, 214–90.

Hardy, James, 1879–81, ‘Report of the Meetings of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club for the year 1889’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 9, 436–506.

Hardy, James, 1882–84, ‘On the ancient cross at Crosshall, in the parish of Eccles, Berwickshire’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 10, 366–72.

Hardy, James, et al., 1900, The Session Book of Bunkle and Preston, 1665–1690 (transcribed and annotated by the late James Hardy, LL.D. With preface by the late Rev. George Gunn. Historical and descriptive account of Bunkle and Preston, ed. by J. Ferguson, Duns; and appendix by Charles S. Romanes) (printed for the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club by H. H. Blair, Alnwick).

Hardy, James, 1909–11, ‘Inedited material for the history of Pawston, Mindrum, Shotton, etc.’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 21, 169–205.

Hedley, W. P., 1968–70, Northumberland Families, 2 vols (Newcastle).

Henderson, [Mr], 1834, ‘The Popular Rhythmes of Berwickshire; to which are added, a few Illustrations’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 1, 145–52.

Higham, Mary C., 1989, ‘shay names – a need for reappraisal?’, Nomina 12, 89–104.

Hogg, Richard M., 1992, A Grammar of Old English. Volume 1: Phonology (Oxford).

Hough, Carole, 1995, ‘OE *grǣg in place-names’, Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 96.4, 361–5.

Hough, Carole, 1998, ‘Place-name evidence for Old English bird-names’, Journal of the English Place-Name Society 30, 60–76.

Hough, Carole, 1999, ‘The trumpeters of Bemersyde: a Scottish placename reconsidered’, Names 47.3, 257–68.

Hough, Carole, 2000, ‘Carolside in Berwickshire and Carelholpit in Lincolnshire’, Nomina 23, 79–86.

Hough, Carole, 2003, ‘Onomastic uses of the term “white”’, Nomina 26, 83–92.

Hough, Carole, 2004, ‘Chilton and other place-names from Old English cild’, Journal of the English Place-Name Society 36, 63–82.

Hough, Carole, 2009a, ‘Eccles in English and Scottish place-names’, in The Church in English Place-Names, ed. Eleanor Quinton (Nottingham), 109–24.

Hough, Carole, 2009b, ‘“Find the lady”: the term lady in English and Scottish place-names’, in Names in Multi-Lingual, Multi-Cultural and Multi-Ethnic Contact: Proceedings of the 23rd ICOS, ed. Wolfgang Ahrens, Sheila Embleton and André Lapierre (York University, Toronto), 511–18.

Hough, Carole, 2010a, ‘The name-type Maid(en)well’, Nomina 33, 27–44.

Hough, Carole, 2010b, Toponymicon and Lexicon in North-West Europe: ‘Ever-Changing Connection’, E. C. Quiggin Memorial Lectures 12 (Cambridge).

Hough, Carole, 2016, ‘The metaphorical landscape’, in Mapping English metaphor Through Time, ed. Wendy Anderson, Ellen Bramwell and Carole Hough (Oxford), 13–31.

Hough, Carole, 2020a, ‘The etymology of pot “deep hole, pit”’, Notes and Queries 67 (1), 27–31.

Hough, Carole, 2020b, ‘The migration of Old English to Scotland: place-name evidence for early Northumbrian settlement in Berwickshire’, in Language on the Move across Domains and Communities. Selected Papers from the 12th Triennial Forum for Research on the Languages of Scotland and Ulster, Glasgow 2018, ed. Joanna Kopaczyk and Robert McColl Millar (Aberdeen), 231–250.

Hough, Carole, 2020c, ‘Place-name evidence for the etymology of Scots carse’, Notes and Queries 67 (1), 31–32.

Hough, Carole, 2019-21, ‘Place-names, languages and identity on the Anglo-Scottish border’, Nomina 40, 75-97.

Hough, Carole. 2022. Old Northumbrian in the Scottish Borders: evidence from place-names. Historical English in Contact, edited by Bettelou Los, Chris Cummins, Lisa Gotthard, Alpo Honkapohja, and Benjamin Molineaux (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 359). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 75-95.

Hough, Carole, forthcoming, ‘The Languages of Berwickshire Place-Names’, Scottish Place-Name Society Newsletter.

Houldsworth, Nigel, 2001, Fisherman’s Map of Salmon Pools on the River Tweed.

James, Alan G., 2009, ‘*Egles / Ecles and the formation of Northumbria’, in The Church in English Place-Names, ed. Eleanor Quinton (Nottingham), 125-150.

James, Alan G., 2010, ‘Scotland’s –ham and –ingham names: a reconsideration’, JSNS 4, 103–30.

James, Alan G., 2014: see BLITON.

Jamieson, Dictionary: An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, by John Jamieson (1759–1838), first published in 2 vols, Edinburgh 1808, with a two-volume Supplement in 1825, then in various editions and revisions throughout the nineteenth century. For full details, see Rennie 2012.

Johnston, James B., 1940, The Place-Names of Berwickshire (The Place-Names of Scotland Series, No.1, published by the RSGS, Edinburgh).

Johnstone, R. G., 1953–55, ‘Extracts from the Records of the Corporation of the Skinners and Glovers, Duns’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 33, 1–12.

JSNS: Journal of Scottish Name Studies

Kennington, Fred, 2005, As Spoken in Berwick: The Unique Dialect (Berwick).

KEPN: Key to English Place-Names online at

King, Jacob, 2008, ‘Analytical tools for toponymy: their application to Scottish hydronymy’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh; online at

Kitson, Peter, 1993, ‘Quantifying Qualifiers in Anglo-Saxon Charter Boundaries’, Folia Linguistica Historica 14.1-2, 29–82.

Kitson, P. R., 1996, ‘British and European river-names’, Transactions of the Philological Society, 94.2, 73–118.

Lang, Theo (ed.), 1957, The Border Counties, The Queen’s Scotland series (London).

Lehmann, William C.  (1971), Henry Home, Lord Kames, and the Scottish Enlightenment: A Study in National Character and in the History of Ideas (The Hague).

MacDonald, Angus, 1941, The Place-Names of West Lothian (Edinburgh).

Macdougall, Norman, 1989, James IV (Edinburgh, re-issued East Linton 1997; and in paperback Edinburgh 2006).

Mack, J. L., 1924, The border line from the Solway Firth to the North Sea, along the marches of Scotland and England (Edinburgh and London).

MacKinlay, J. M., 1914, Ancient Church Dedications in Scotland: Non-scriptural (Edinburgh).

Macquarrie, Alan, 1993, ‘Vita Sancti Servani: The Life of St Serf’, Innes Review 44, 122–52.

Márkus, Gilbert, 2012, The Place-Names of Bute (Donington) (PNBute).

Mawer, Allen, 1920, The Place-Names of Northumberland and Durham (Cambridge).

Maxwell, Sir Herbert, 1909, The Story of the Tweed (London).

McNiven, Peter, 2014, ‘The Lake of Menteith: why a lake amongst lochs?’, Journal of Scottish Name Studies 8, 153–66.

MED: Middle English Dictionary online at

Mills, A. D., 2011, A Dictionary of British Place Names, rev. edn (Oxford).

Morgan, Ailig Peadar, 2013, ‘Ethnonyms in the place-names of Scotland and the Border counties of England’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of St Andrews; online at

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1967, ‘Scottish Place-Names: 29. Scandinavian Personal Names in the Place-Names of South-East Scotland’, Scottish Studies 11, 223–36.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1969, ‘Some Problems of Chronology in Southern Scotland’, Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Onomastic Sciences (London 1966), 340–47 (Louvain).

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1976, Scottish Place-Names (London; second impression with additional information 1979; slightly revised edition with new bibliography and preface, Edinburgh 2001).

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1982, ‘”Old European names” in Britain’, Nomina 6, 37–42.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H., 1995, ‘Is There a Northwest Germanic Toponymy? Some Thoughts and a Proposal’, in Nordwestgermanisch, ed. Edith Marold and Christiane Zimmermann (Berlin and New York), 103–14.

NMRS: National Monuments Record of Scotland, fully searchable online at

OED: Oxford English Dictionary online at

OSA: The [Old] Statistical Account of Scotland 1791–99, ed. Sir John Sinclair (Edinburgh; reissued county by county in 20 vols, with new introductions, 1978). Unless otherwise stated, references are to the original edition.

Owen, Hywel Wyn, and Morgan, Richard, 2007, Dictionary of the Place-Names of Wales (Llandysul).

PASE: The Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England database online at

PNBute: The Place-Names of Bute. See Márkus 2012.

PNDurham: Place-Names of Durham i, English Place-Name Society, Vol. 83, Victor Watts, Part 1 (Stockton Ward), Nottingham 2007.

PNF: The Place-Names of Fife. See Taylor with Márkus 2006–2012. Fife place-name data online at

PNKNR: The Place-Names of Kinross-shire. See Taylor with McNiven and Williamson 2017.

PoMS:‘The People of Medieval Scotland 1093–1314’, a database of all known people of Scotland between 1093 and 1314 mentioned in over 8600 contemporary documents, online at

Pratt, Stella, 2005, ‘Summer landscapes: investigating Scottish topographical place-names’, Nomina 28, 93-114.

PSAS: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland

Rennie, Susan, 2012, Jamieson’s Dictionary of Scots: the story of the first historical dictionary of the Scots language (Oxford).

RPS: Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707, University of St Andrews, online at

SAEC: Anderson, Alan O., 1991, Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1280 (Stamford).

Saints in Scottish Place-Names:

Scott, Margaret R., 2003, ‘The Germanic toponymicon of Southern Scotland: place-name elements and their contribution to the lexicon and onomasticon’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow; online at

Scott, Margaret, 2007, ‘Place-names and the Scots language: the marches of lexical and onomastic research’, Scottish Language 26, 1–15.

SEA I. See Shead 2016.

Shead, Norman F., 2016, Scottish Episcopal Acta Volume 1: The Twelfth Century, SHS (2015) in association with The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, Suffolk (SEA I).

Shennan, H., 1892, Boundaries of Counties and Parishes in Scotland (Edinburgh), online on scotlandsplaces website.

SHR: Scottish Historical Review

Smith, I. M., 1990, ‘The archaeological background to the emergent kingdoms of the Tweed Basin in the Early Historic period’, 2 vols, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Durham; online at

Smith, Sally, 1999 (repr. 2005), Cockburnspath: A History of a People and a Place (Dunglass Mill).

SND: Grant, William, et al. (ed.), 1931–76, The Scottish National Dictionary. 10 vols (Edinburgh) available online at:

Steinvall, Anders, 2006, ‘Basic Colour Terms and type modification: meaning in relation to function, salience and correlating attributes’, in Progress in Colour Studies. Volume 1. Language and Culture, ed. C. P. Biggam and C. J. Kay (Amsterdam), 57–71.

Stones, E. L. G., and Simpson, Grant G., 1978, Edward I and the Throne of Scotland 1290–1296: An edition of the record sources for the Great Cause, 2 vols (Oxford).

Strandberg, Svante, 2016, ‘River names’, in The Oxford Handbook of Names and Naming, ed. Carole Hough (Oxford), 104–14.

Strang, Charles Alexander, 1994, Borders and Berwick: An Illustrated Architectural Guide to the Scottish Borders and Tweed Valley (Edinburgh).

Stringer, K. J., 2000, ‘Acts of Lordship: the records of the Lords of Galloway to 1234’, in Freedom and Authority: Historical and Historiographical Essays Presented to Grant G. Simpson, ed. Terry Brotherstone and David Ditchburn (East Linton), 203–34.

Swan, Cynthia, 1996–98, ‘A Note on Harelaw’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 47, 66.

Taylor, Simon, 1999, ‘Seventh-century Iona abbots in Scottish place-names’, in Spes Scotorum Hope of the Scots, ed. D. Broun and T. O. Clancy (Edinburgh), 35–70.

Taylor, Simon, 2004, ‘Scandinavians in central Scotland: -place-names and their context’, in Sagas, Saints and Settlements, ed. Gareth Williams and Paul Bibire (Leiden, Netherlands), 125–45.

Taylor, Simon, 2007, ‘The Rock of The Irishmen: an early place-name tale from Fife and Kinross’, in West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement before 1300, ed. Beverley Ballin Smith, Simon Taylor and Gareth Williams (Leiden and Boston), 497–514.

Taylor, Simon, 2008, ‘Pilkembare and Pluck the Craw: verbal place-names in Scotland’, in A Commodity of Good Names: Essays in Honour of Margaret Gelling, ed. O. J. Padel and David N. Parsons (Donington), 274–85.

Taylor, Simon, 2017, ‘Yes, some of the earliest recorded Scottish place-names’, Scottish Place-Name News no. 43 (Autumn), 3–8.

Taylor, Simon, 2021, ‘“Flemish” Settlements in Upper Clydesdale in the 12th and 13th Centuries: the Evidence of Place-Names’, Journal of Scottish Name Studies 15, 32–62.

Taylor, Simon, 2023, ‘From kestrels to foul marshes: light on a parish in the Merse c.1200’, in ‘With our Backs to the Ocean’: Land, Lordship, Climate Change, and Environment in the North-West European Past. Essays in Memory of Alasdair Ross, ed. Richard Oram (Turnhout), 183–204.

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2006, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 1 (Donington) (PNF 1).

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2008, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 2 (Central Fife between Leven and Eden) (Donington) (PNF 2).

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2009, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 3 (St Andrews and the East Neuk) (Donington) (PNF 3).

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2010, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 4 (North Fife between Eden and Tay) (Donington) (PNF 4).

Taylor, Simon, with Gilbert Márkus, 2012, The Place-Names of Fife Vol. 5 (Discussion, Glossaries and Edited Texts, with Addenda and Corrigenda of Volumes 1–4) (Donington) (PNF 5).

Taylor, Simon, with Peter McNiven and Eila Williamson, 2017, The Place-Names of Kinross-shire (Donington) (PNKNR).

Taylor, Simon, with Thomas Owen Clancy, Peter McNiven and Eila Williamson, 2020, The Place-Names of Clackmannanshire (Donington) (PNCLA).

TDGNHAS: Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society

Thornton, David E., 1997, ‘Hey, Mac! The Name Maccus, Tenth to Fifteenth Centuries’, Nomina 20, 67–98.

Thorson, Stephanie M., 1998, ‘Adam Abell’s “The riot or quheill of tyme”: an edition’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of St Andrews; online at

Turner, J. Ramsay, 1956–58, ‘Note on Houndwood House’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 34, 99–101.

Vennemann, Theo, 1994, ‘Linguistic reconstruction in the context of European prehistory’, Transactions of the Philological Society 92 (2), 215–84.

VEPN: Parsons, David N. et al., 1997– , The Vocabulary of English Place-Names, 3 fascicles so far published (Nottingham). A draft version of letter M is available online at

Wager, Sarah, 2017, ‘The meaning of lēah’, Journal of the English Place-Name Society 49, 95–126.

Warrender, Margaret, 1894, Marchmont and the Humes of Polwarth, by one of their descendants (Edinburgh and London).

Watson, Angus, 2001, The Essential Gaelic-English Dictionary (Edinburgh).

Watson, William J., 1926, The History of the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland (Edinburgh and London; reprinted several times, most recently with an Introduction and Watson bibliography by Simon Taylor, Edinburgh 2004, 2011).

Watts, Victor, 1994, ‘The place-name Hexham: a mainly philological approach’, Nomina 17, 119–36.

Watts, Victor, 2002, A Dictionary of County Durham Place-Names (Nottingham).

Watts, Victor, 2004, The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names (Cambridge).

Waugh, William, 2017, ‘Cleikhimin’, Scottish Place-Name News no. 42 (Spring), 2–3.

Turner, J. Ramsay, 1956–58, ‘Note on Houndwood House’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 34, 99–101.

Weatherhead, 1996–98, ‘Æbbe – Her Life and Cult’, History of the Berwickshire Naturalists’ Club 47, 275–90.

Wedderburn, John, 1578, Ane compendious buik of godlie psalmes and spirituall sangis (printed by John Ross for Henry Charteris (Iohne Ros for Henrie Charteris), Edinburgh). This has restricted availability online at the following address (starting at the frontispiece):

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