Element Glossary

There are 1058 elements:

*ad(u)/*adro 1 place-name

Language: Unknown (un), Part of Speech: N

'A watercourse, a stream'. The element appears to be pre-Celtic, and both its form and its language are uncertain. See discussion under Adder.

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(Foulden) Hag 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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(Greenlaw) Castle 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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(Langton)lees 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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(The) Hardens 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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(Westmains) Moor 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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(Whitsome) Laws 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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*alauna 1 place-name

Language: Unknown (un), Part of Speech: V

'Flowing'. The element appears to be pre-Celtic, and both its form and its language are uncertain. See discussion under Ale Water.

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*er-/*or- 1 place-name

Language: Unknown (un), Part of Speech: V

'To cause to move, to stimulate'. The element appears to be pre-Celtic, and both its form and its language are uncertain.

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*idunā 1 place-name

Language: Unknown (un), Part of Speech: V

'Water'. The element appears to be pre-Celtic, and both its form and its meaning are uncertain.

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-ing- 6 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: S

A connective particle used in the formation of place-names. It is discussed by Smith (1956), s.v. -ing-4, -ing(tūn).

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-inga- 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: S

'Settlers at' or 'followers of'.

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-ingahām 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: S

'Settlement of the followers of' or 'Settlement of the people at'; for recent discussion of this element in a Scottish context, see Alan G. James, 2010, ‘Scotland’s –ham and –ingham names: a reconsideration’, Journal of Scottish Name Studies 4, 103-30.

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-ingas 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: S

A suffix denoting groups of people, especially the family or dependants of a leader.

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-ōc 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: S

Adjectival, nominal and place-name forming suffix deriving from early Celtic *–āko-; for a discussion of –ōc as a place-name forming suffix, along with its Gaelic cognate –ach, in Ireland, southern Britain and Brittany, see Russell 1990 [Russell, Paul, 1990, Celtic Word-Formation (Dublin)], 23–8. It derives from early Celtic *–āko-, and is most productive in Welsh, as –og, earlier –awc (Russell 1990, 3260). It is found also in Gaelic as –ōc, later –óg, modern Scottish Gaelic –ag (Russell loc. cit.; Watson 1926, 44750), alongside the more regular Gaelic development of *–āko- as ach.

BLITON's form is -ǭg, under which it is described as an ‘[a]djectival suffix, indicating "being of the kind of", "association with", "abounding in", the stem-word. It occurs very widely in river-names, hill-names and other topographic names.’

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abbey 7 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'An abbey; a monastery or convent whose head is an abbot or abbess'.

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Abbey St Bathans 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Sometimes shortened simply to St Bathans, as in St Bathan's House.

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āc 1 historical form

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'An oak (tree)'.

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acre 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'An acre'; in plural also 'fields, arable land' (DOST). See DOST for a wide variety of spellings, including aiker.

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acre 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'An acre'.

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Adder 4 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Addinston 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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aik 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'An oak (tree)'.

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aiky 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Covered with oak’; this adj., from Scots aik, ake ‘oak’, is not attested in the lexicon (DOST or SND).

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alane 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Alone; on its/their own'. An older alternative is 'the lane', found in an early form of Standalane HUT (for which see Paxton South Mains HUT).

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Albane 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

An anglicised version of Albainn, the genitive of Gaelic Alba 'Scotland', found in such names as Breadalbane.

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ald 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Old'.

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Alden 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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Ale 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

A river-name.

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Allan 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname recorded within the Berwickshire OS Name Book.

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Allan 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Alton 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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an 1 place-name

Language: Gaelic (G), Part of Speech: D

‘The’, the definite article (declinable). In modern Scottish Gaelic it is frequently used with place-names, mainly those consisting of one element whose meaning is transparent e.g. Errocht INV (NN143823), in Gaelic An Eireachd, from G eireachd f. ‘assembly, meeting-(place)’.

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Andrew 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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angel 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'An angel', possibly used with reference to St Michael the Archangel.

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Anthony 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

Personal name.

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ash 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'The ash tree'.

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Auchencrow 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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auld 2 historical forms1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Old'.

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Ayton 5 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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back 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Back, back-lying'.

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Backlea 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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bæc-stān 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A baking-stone, flat stone for baking on'.

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Baird 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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Banishiel 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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bank 1 historical form7 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A slope or bank'; also SSE.

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bank 2 historical forms14 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

‘A slope or bank’; also Scots.

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barn 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A barn'; also SSE.

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barn 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

 'A barn'; also Scots.

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Barnside 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Bartle Hill 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Bassendean 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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bastle, bastille 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

From OSc bastailȝe, bastalȝe etc. ‘a wooden siege-tower’ or ‘a defensive tower’ (DOST). SND under bastile, bastel, bastle defines it as ‘a strong stone tower or fortress, used for securing prisoners’. Note also the modern (technical) usage of this term to refer to ‘a fortified house of two or three storeys, the lower floor being used for storage and/or to house animals and the upper floors for domestic use’ (Canmore definition).

'A fortified house or tower'.

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bay 4 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A bay'.

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beach 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A beach'.

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beau 1 place-name

Language: French (Fr), Part of Speech: Aj, Gender M

'Beautiful, fine, handsome' (m.), belle (f.).

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bee 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A bee'.

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bell 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A bell; a feature resembling a bell'. Also Scots.

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bell 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A bell; a feature resembling a bell'. DOST under Scots bel or bell adds: ‘Attributively with akyr, custume, stok, tour. Bell akyr, bell custume(s), probably denote land and custom-dues applied to the upkeep of a bell’. As a generic it can also mean 'a bell-shaped hill', as found in the neighbouring Northumberland in Yeavering Bell (see VEPN under belle). Note also bell of the brae, 'the highest part of the slope of a hill’ (SND n.3).

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Bell 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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Belmont 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

A standard house-name.

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bēmere 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A bittern'.

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Bemersyde 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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benty 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Covered in bent, a strong, coarse, or wiry variety of grass (esp. the sea reed-grass), growing upon moorlands or links' (DOST).

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berry 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A berry'; also SSE.

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berry 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A berry'; also Scots.

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betwixt 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Pr

'Between'.

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bield 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Also beild; 'shelter; a place affording shelter, as, a house to a man, a byre or a fold to cattle, a nest to a bird' (SND).

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big 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Big'; also SSE.

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Billie 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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bircen 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Birchen, growing with birch-trees'.

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Birgham 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Birkenside 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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bishop 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A bishop'.

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bita 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

‘A bit, a piece, a morsel, fragment’ (Bosworth-Toller Dictionary), literally ‘a piece bitten off’.

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Black 1 historical form

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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black 8 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Black'; also SSE.

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black 6 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Black'; also Scots.

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Blackadder 2 historical forms1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Blackadder Water 1 historical form4 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

This name derives from Blackadder Water, formerly Blackadder.

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Blackburn 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Blackburn Rig 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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blacker 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Blacker, more black'.

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Blackerstone 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Blackrig 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Blacksmill 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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blæc 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Black, dark'.

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blajn 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Summit; source or upper reaches of a stream; head of a valley; extremity, limits, remotest region; uplands'.

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Blanerne 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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blinkbonny 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Ph

A Scots phrase coined in the 18th century, perhaps on the model of Fr beauvoir and Italian belvedere, to indicate a settlement with a good view or outlook. It is fully discussed by Liz Curtis forthcoming (2018) (JSNS 12 ‘A Blink on Blinkbonny').

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blithe 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Blithe, happy, glad, in good spirits, cheerful, pleasant', also of inanimate objects (DOST). See discussion under OE blīðe.

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blīðe 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'... “blithe” ranges in meaning from “cheerful, merry” to “quiet, gentle”. In river-names, where the element is most common, either of these extremes may be applicable, or the sense may be no more specific than “pleasant”' (VEPN s.v.).

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blue 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Blue'.

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Blythe (Water) 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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bog 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A bog'.

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bog 6 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A bog'.

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bog 1 place-name

Language: Gaelic (G), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A bog'.

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bogan 1 place-name

Language: Gaelic (G), Part of Speech: N

'A pimple, swelling; quagmire, marsh'.

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bonnet 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A hat'.

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Boon 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Boondreigh (Water) 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Borrowston 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Bouche 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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bow 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A bow', sometimes referring to shape.

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bow 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Cattle'.

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bower 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A tenant who hires dairy cattle and grazing rights'.

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Bowie 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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Bowshiel 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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brae 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

See Scots brae for discussion.

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brae 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘(Steep) slope’, in singular usually applied to a slope on a road, but in plural simply meaning ‘slopes, sloping upland’.

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braid 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Broad'.

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brander 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A gridiron'.

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bre 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N

'A hill'.

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breeches 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Trousers'.

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bridge 6 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A bridge'.

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briery 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Brambly, thorny'.

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brig 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

In some cases it has been Englished to bridge, but it can be assumed that any name coined before about 1700 will have brig rather than bridge, while those coined after that time will usually have bridge. In modern Scots brig is the usual form for all bridge-names.

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brinn 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A hill'; discussed in BLITON under *brïnn, where it is said to be m. 'but maybe f too in Br and neoBritt’.

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broad 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Broad'.

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Broadmeadows 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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brock 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A badger'.

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Brockholes 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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broom 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Broom (plant)'; also Scots.

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broom 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Broom (plant)'; also SSE.

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Broom House 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Broomfield 1 historical form

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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broomy 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Growing with broom'.

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brother 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A brother; a monk'; possibly used in place-names to refer to a pair of features such as standing stones.

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Brotherstone 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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brōþor 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A brother; a monk'; possibly used in place-names to refer to a pair of features such as standing stones.

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Brown 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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brown 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Brown'.

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brun 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A hill'; BLITON gives the early Brittonic form as *brïnn, which see for an important discussion. There the gender is given as m., adding 'but maybe f too in Br and neoBritt'.

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Brunta Burn 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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brycg 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A bridge; a causeway'. See VEPN under brycg.

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bucht 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A sheepfold'.

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buck 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A male deer'.

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bull 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A bull'.

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bun 1 place-name

Language: Gaelic (G), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Base, foot'.

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bune 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A drinking vessel'.

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bune 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

'A reed'.

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Bunkle 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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burh 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A stronghold'. In place-names, 'applied to a range of defended sites, including Iron-Age hill-forts, Roman stations, and Anglo-Saxon and medieval fortifications, towns and manor-houses' (VEPN).

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burh-tūn 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'An enclosure, earthwork, or wall, around a city or fortification ? enclosed dwelling in a city or town ? walled city or town' (DOE A-H). The compound is recorded once in poetry, a genre that shares much vocabulary with the toponymicon, and frequently in English place-names, where it may, as suggested in VEPN, refer either to a farm belonging to a burh 'stronghold', or to a settlement that resembled a burh in appearance or function. It is common on the Anglo-Welsh border, "where even small settlements may have required defences against raiders" (VEPN), and its occurrence on the Anglo-Scottish border probably reflects a similar situation.

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burn 1 historical form58 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

‘A burn, a stream’, the standard word in Scotland, both in Scots and SSE for southern English ‘stream, brook’, northern English ‘beck’. It usually occurs as a generic, but it is sometimes found as the specific element of a settlement name, describing the settlement in relation to the burn (e.g. Burnbank FOU).

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burn 3 historical forms28 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A burn, a stream'; also SSE.

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burna 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A stream'.

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Burnmouth 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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buskin 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Used of various types of clothing, including a half-boot (16th century) and a women's cap or hood (17th to early 19th centuries).

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Buskin Burn 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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buss 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A ledge of rocks projecting into the sea’, with specific reference to the Firth of Forth, defined thus by Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary, cited by SND; ‘any small sea rock that is exposed at low tide’ (SND). It is probably an extended meaning of Scots buss ‘a bush’, also appearing as busk and bush (SND). Note that it is also found in the Northumbrian dialect (English Dialect Dictionary, cited SND). For Fife examples, see PNF 5 Elements Glossary under buss. However, Alison Grant has suggested it may be connected with Scots boss, bos ‘a projection, a round mass’ (SND, the related DOST entry being bos, boys ‘a rounded prominence, a boss’). This has then been wrongly Englished as bush (Grant 2013 [Grant, Alison, 2013, ‘Buss: “if we shake the bushes of the sea, then two come along at once: an etymological muddle”’, online article at: http://www.scotsdictionaries.org.uk/Publications/Newsletters/sldNewsletter_0513/buss.html]).

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butter 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Butter', typically used in place-names of rich pasture producing butter; also Scots.

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butter 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Butter', typically used in place-names of rich pasture producing butter; also SSE.

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byre 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A cow-house or cattle-house'.

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Byrecleugh 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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bý(r) 1 place-name

Language: Old Norse (ON), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A settlement, a village'.

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cair 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N

'A fort'.

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cairn 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A cairn, burial mound, pile of stones'; also SSE.

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cairn 7 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A cairn, burial mound, pile of stones'; also Scots.

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cald 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Cold', applied literally to water. Also 'exposed, windswept' in other names.

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calf 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A calf''; also 'a fawn' (DOST).

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calf 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'A calf'; southern OE cealf (both m. and n.).

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caller 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Cool, refreshing'.

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Cambus 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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camp 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A place of encampment'.

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Carfrae 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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carr 4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A (coastal) rock’. This word is unattested as a lexical item in Scots, and is said to derive from northern OE carr ‘rock’, ‘generally thought to enter OE from Celtic’ (VEPN under carr). It is found as a generic element in the names of various rocky islets along the south-east Scottish and north-east English coast, such as Out Carres, Farne Islands, Northumberland.

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carse 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'(An extensive stretch of) low alluvial land along the banks of a river', frequently in place-names la13- (CSD2).

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castle 1 historical form9 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A castle; a big house'; also a feature that resembles a castle, or is interpreted as the remains of a castle.

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castle 5 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A castle'. While Scots castle (also castel(l)and SSE castle generally refers to a high-status, fortified dwelling, the word can in some instances refer to prehistoric features, while in others it may simply refer to a relief feature perceived as a place where a castle might have stood or which looks a bit like a castle, such as coastal rocks.

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cat cairn 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Ph

'A cairn associated with, or resembling, a cat'.

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Catcairn 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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cauld 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Cold'.

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cauld 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Cold'.

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causeway 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A causeway'.

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Cawderstanes 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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ceaster 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

OE ceaster or cæster (depending on dialect) (Coates 2006, 6, 9). Coates, discussing the history of the development of the OE word, concludes that chester (as opposed to *caster) ‘appears to be a West-Saxonism fossilized in nationwide administrative usage in the Middle English period and then generalised in ordinary usage’ (2006, 10). For a full discussion of the development and application of the word in place-names in England, see VEPN under cæster.

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cēd 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A wood, woodland'; BLITON form *cę:d.

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celli 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

‘A small wood, a copse, a grove’ (BLITON under *celli).

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Cēolwulf 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

An OE personal name.

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chaipel, chapel 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A place of worship, a chapel'.

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Channelkirk 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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channon 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A canon of a cathedral', according to DOST. However, canons also made up the community of a collegiate church. It can also refer to a priest living under a monastic rule such as the Augustinian or Premonstratensian.

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Charterhall 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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charterour 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A Carthusian monk'.

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cheek 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The side of anything' (SND); in place-names, possibly a metaphorical use of 'side of the face'.

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chester 2 historical forms10 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

As a noun it is not attested in Scots until the late eighteenth century, in the sense of a circular fortification (SND), and many of its occurrences in Scottish place-names seem also to be late, some of them antiquarian. However, it appears in place-names from the early 13th century onwards, and the vernacular word chestris (pl.) occurs in a Latin charter of 1235 from east Fife (see PNF 3, 329–30, 332).

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Chirnside 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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church 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A church'.

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cild 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Child; boy; boy in care of a religious community; offspring; youth of noble birth'.

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cill 1 place-name

Language: Gaelic (G), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A church, burial place'.

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cirice 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A church'.

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clack 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The clapper of a mill' (CSD2).

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clapper 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Scots clappers ‘small wooden instruments used in butter-making’ (SND); OSc clapper (also clappir, clapar, -er) ‘a means of making a clapping noise, especially that used by lepers’ (DOST).

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Clarabad 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Clarembald 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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cleek-him-in 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Ph

'Hook them in'.

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Cleekhimin 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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cleugh 7 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A gorge, a ravine'.

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cleugh 11 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A narrow gorge or chasm with high rocky sides' (SND).

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clint 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A cliff, a crag, a precipice', also 'a rock, a stone', 'a cleft or crevice (in rocks)' (CSD2).

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Clints 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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cnapa 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A boy, a youth; a servant'.

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cock 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A male bird, especially of the domestic fowl' (CSD2).

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Cockburn 4 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Colbrand 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

An OE personal name.

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cold 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Cold', often with names of water-courses; also 'inhospitable, cheerless' or 'bleak, exposed'.

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Coldingham 4 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Coldstream 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Collielaw 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Colud 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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Colud 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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common 5 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A common', i.e. common land.

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constable 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'An officer of the peace; a police officer'; earlier 'the commander of an army under the king; the warden of a royal castle' (CSD2).

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Corbie 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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cot 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A cottage'.

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cottage 2 historical forms11 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A cottage'.

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court 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A court'.

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Cove 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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cove 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A cave or cavern’ (SND), Older Scots cove, coif, etc. ‘a recess in a rock; a cave’ (DOST). Note also its meaning  'a worn-out ledge or hag on a river-bank' (cited in SND as a Roxburghshire usage). See Patie's Cove HUT.

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cove 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

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cover 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A thicket, a place which gives shelter to wild animals or game'; also appears as SSE covert.

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covert 9 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

The OED defines this word as 'a place which gives shelter to wild animals or game, esp. a thicket'. It is a variant of SSE cover, and in the same name can be interchangeable.

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covey 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

A game bird, perhaps a partridge. Attested in OED as a collective noun, and in SND quotation evidence as a collective noun and (once) as a term for a single game bird.

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cow 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A cow'.

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cow 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A cow'.

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Cowdenknowes 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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craig 8 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A rock, crag'; also Scots.

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craig 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A rock, crag'; also SSE.

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Craigie 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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craigie 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE)

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cran 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A crane (bird)'.

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Cranshaws 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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craw 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE)

'A crow, a rook'.

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crib 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A manger, a fodder-box’; ‘a hen-coop’; in the Borders ‘a reel for yarn’ (CSD2); also in Berwickshire ‘a fish-trap’ (OS Name Book). The meaning in place-names is uncertain. In connection with topographical features, one of the CSD2 senses might be used metaphorically to refer to shape; in connection with water, it might refer literally to fish-traps.

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croft 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A small land-holding (leased by a tenant)', frequently in place-names 16- ; 'a piece of enclosed land (adjoining a house), a small field (used for tillage or pasture)', frequently in place-names 13-19 (CSD2). It can also appear as craft (SND).

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crook 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A curved or crooked piece of land, a nook or corner', also 'a curve, a bend; a river-bend' (CSD2).

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Crookston 1 historical form

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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cross 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A cross'; frequently used in place-names of 'a crossing,a cross-roads; a market cross, a market-place'; also 'a cross as a boundary marker; a cairn, a pile of stones on a hill-top' (CSD2).

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cross 7 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A cross', a crossing', sometimes indicating the presence of a cross at or near the place named; sometimes indicating a crossroads or junction.

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crow 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A crow'.

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crowfoot 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

The name of various plants whose leaves or other parts are taken to resemble a crow's foot, including buttercup and wild hyacinth.

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Crowlea 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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crown 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

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cruik 4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A curved or crooked piece of land; a nook or corner'; frequently in place-names 13- ; 'a curve, a bend; a river-bend' la13- (CSD2). Aso an adjectival form, cruikit, crooked, crukit 'bent, crooked; curved’.

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crum 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Bent, crooked'.

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crunckled 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Crinkled'. Past participle adjective from the verb crunkle, crunc(k)le (SND).

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1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A cow'.

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Cumledge 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Cwic 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

An OE personal name; on record only as first element of compound personal names.

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Cynebriht 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

An OE personal name.

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cyrn 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

'A churn'; may be used metaphorically in place-names.

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dæl 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'A valley, a dale'.

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Dalcove 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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dale 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A valley'.

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dale 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A share, portion or piece of land'.

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dalk 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Slate clay'.

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darling 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A darling'. Also an adjective. Perhaps used as a term of approbation in place-names, as has been suggested for the field-name Darling in Milburn, Westmorland.

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Darnchester 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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dean 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A deep valley; a gorge'. See under Scots dene.

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Deans 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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deid 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Dead'.

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den 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

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dene 11 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A small valley, generally with a rivulet running through it’ (DOST). It often refers to a very steep valley or a gorge. It survives in Berwickshire chiefly as dean, whereas north of the Forth in Fife it is den (see PNF 5, Elements Glossary s.v.). It derives from OE denu.

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denu 9 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A valley'; the standard term in Old English for a main valley.

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dere, deir 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Deer' (collectively, or a single animal) (DOST).

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dern(e), darn(e) 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Secret, hidden, concealed' (of places) (DOST).

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dich 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Older Scots dichdych 'a ditch' (OE dīc). This seems to be an alternative form of the more usual Scots dyke, influenced by English ditch. In Thornydykes WRR early forms have dich, later forms dyke.

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Dimples 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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dīnas 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A fort, refuge, stronghold'.

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Dirrington 4 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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ditcher 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A person who makes and repairs ditches' (OED). No entry in DSL (or CSD2), but several occurrences in the quotation evidence.

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diuer 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

'A diver'. An unattested derivative of OE dūfan ‘to dive’, possibly used as a river name but very uncertain.

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Dod 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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dod 5 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A bare hill with a rounded top; a (rounded) lump or shoulder on a larger hill' la12- (CSD2).

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Dods 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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dog 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A dog, a hound'. However, the term has a wide range of metaphorical meanings in compounds, several of which are plant names. Also Scots.

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dog 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A dog, a hound'. However, the term has a wide range of metaphorical meanings in compounds, several of which are plant names, as well as the unexplained topographical dog buss in DOST.

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dog-law 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Not on record, but would parallel dog-hillock, 'A small mound or hillock covered with long grass' la16- (CSD2).

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doocot 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A dovecot’. While doocot is still the most common way of referring to these conspicuous and often elegant structures in the Scottish lowland landscape, the SSE spelling (though probably not the pronunciation) dovecot starts to appear in the eighteenth century.

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doun 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A hill'; DOST describes it as occurring 'only in poetry, and coupled with dale'.

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dovecot 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A house for doves or pigeons'.

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dow 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A dove' (DOST). The headform in CSD2 is doo, with dow as the Borders form, and the definition 'a dove or pigeon'.

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Dowiedean 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Dowlaw 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Draden 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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drake, draik 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A male duck' (DOST).

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Drakemire 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Drakemyre 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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drone 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A male honey-bee'.

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drone1 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The buttocks, the backside' la18-19, 20- (CSD2). Potentially used topographically in place-names, as is the corresponding Gaelic term dronn 'rump, back, ridge, summit, hump'. However, it is not recorded in the Borders. CSD2 locates the term in the North-East and Tayside, and although SND has an earlier (1768) occurrence, it is from Aberdeenshire.

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drone2 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A male honey-bee'. Not in SND or CSD2, but DOST has a compound dron bee.

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Dronshiel 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Drummond 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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Dryburgh 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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drȳge 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

‘Dry’. In place-names, mostly used of arid land or a dried-up stream.

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dub 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A pool, especially one of muddy or stagnant water; pond; waterhole in a moss; puddle; a sea pool, especially one only visible at low water’ (in this last meaning, FIF and BWK); 'a puddle' (SND). SND also gives a specifically BWK usage of dub meaning 'a pool in a river'.

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dub 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A pool, especially one of muddy or stagnant water; pond; waterhole in a moss; puddle; a sea pool, especially one only visible at low water’ (in this last meaning, FIF and BWK); 'a puddle' (SND). SND also gives a specifically BWK usage of dub meaning 'a pool in a river'. Also Scots.

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dūn 6 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A hill, mountain'. Variable gender (usually f., occas. m. or n.), which may account for the plural [s] morpheme in Duns.

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dun 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Dun, dull brown'.

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Dunglass 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Dunglass ELO.

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Duns 4 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Duns Castle 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Dunstan 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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dunter 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘An eider-duck or other water-bird’. Mostly found in compounds, but SND records a simplex form from Fife (1710) and Midlothian (1809).

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Dye Water 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

A river-name.

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dyke 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A wall'; earlier 'a ditch'.

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dyke 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A ditch, a wall, a dyke'.

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dykit 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Enclosed with a dyke' 16- (CSD2).

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dùn 3 place-names

Language: Gaelic (G), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A (fortified) hill, a defensive hill, a fortification'; also 'hill, hillock, heap, tower'.

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ēa 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A river, a large burn’.

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Ead(d)a 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

An OE personal name.

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Earlston 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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earn, erne 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'An eagle'.

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Earnscleugh 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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east 2 historical forms6 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'East'.

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east 3 historical forms7 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Easterly, east-lying'.

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east end 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Ph

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East Reston 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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east(er) 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Lying to the east'.

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easter 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Lying to the east'.

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ebb 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The going out of the tide' (CSD2).

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Ecclaw 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Eccles 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Eden 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

A river-name.

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Edgar 3 place-names

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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Edgarhope 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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edge 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'The crest of a ridge' la15- (CSD2). Also Scots.

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edge 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Edge'; OSc ege ‘the crest of a sharp ridge’ (DOST). It can also be SSE.

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Edington 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Edingtonhill 1 historical form

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Edrington 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Edrom 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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eglēs 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N

'A church'. Unattested outside place-names.

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elba 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'An elbow'. Used topographically in place-names to refer to a bend or crook.

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Ellem 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Ellemford 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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ellen 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'The elder-tree'.

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eller, elder 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'The elder tree' 19- (CSD2).

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elm 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'The elm tree'.

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Elwald 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

Surname from the OE personal name Ælfwald.

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end 6 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'End' (of a feature such as a wood or a hill).

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end 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'An end', usually referring to the far point of a feature.

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Erchel 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

The place-name is not on record, but may be reflected in early spellings of Earlston.

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Eunimonde 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

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Evelaw 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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evil, evill, ivill, iwill 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Inferior, of poor quality; badly made or maintained la14- (CSD2).

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Eye 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

The Eye Water.

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fæger 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Beautiful'. Used of people, places and inanimate things. See esp. DOE A-H s.v., sense 1.a.vi.

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fair 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Fine; good quality'.

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Fair 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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Falaknowe 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Fallago 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Possibly a lost name.

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Fallago Ridge 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Fan Cove 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Fangrist 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Fans 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Fans Loanend 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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farm 3 historical forms12 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A farm'.

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farny 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Overgrown with fern'. Both this and the corresponding noun are mainly found in place-names. DOST, s.v. farny, has a single citation from 1611, but draws attention to place-name occurrences from the 13th century. There is no entry for the adjective in SND or CSD2, but CSD2, s.v. fern, fairn, farne, n. 'bracken; a fern or ferns', describes the noun as frequent in place-names la13-.

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fast 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Fixed, firm', 'strong against attack' (DOST).

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Fast Castle 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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fauld 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A fold, pen; enclosed piece of ground used for cultivation, small field’; chiefly in plural ‘the part of the outfield that was manured by folding cattle on it’ (eighteenth/nineteenth century)’ CSD.

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faw 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

‘Speckled, variegated’.

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Fawcett 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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Fawcett CHM 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Not on record, but such a name would be paralleled both within Berwickshire and in northern England.

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fell 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A steep, rocky hill; a tract of hill-moor', frequently in place-names 15- (CSD2).

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Fellcleugh 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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ferny 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Covered in, or surrounded by, bracken’; variously spelled fairny/iefearny/ie etc.

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Fernyrig 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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feuar, feuer, fewar 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A person who held land in perpetual lease; the tenant of a feu' 16-20 (CSD2).

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field 12 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A field; infield'; of the medieval field (Latin campus) G. W. S. Barrow writes: 'It seems that a village would normally have two big fields ("north" and "south" or "east" and "west" are commonly found), and it is likely that as much as practicable of the dung from sheep and cattle was concentrated on these fields, the "infield" of later record' (1981, 4).

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field 1 historical form18 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A field'.

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Fireburn 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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fisc 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A fish'.

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Fishwick 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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fit 2 historical forms1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A foot’, also fuit, fute ‘foot, lower end of a piece of ground, a stream, a street etc’ (CSD), and thus frequently found in combination with elements such as bank, brae, burn, hillloan and rig.

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flash 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A pool, a marshy place'.

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Flass 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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flat 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A piece of level ground’, also flatt, flettDOST describes this word as ‘frequent in early place-names’, and states that the earliest example in Scotland dates to c.1220. The earliest so far identified in Berwickshire is Colemannesflat 1198 x 1214 Kelso Liber i no. 140 (Langton parish).

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Fleming 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A Fleming; a person from Flanders'. Also SSE.

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Fleming 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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foal 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A foal'; Older Scots folefoill (also fol, foll, foyle, foile, foall) (DOST).

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fog 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘Grass left in the field during winter’ (DOST).

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fogga 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

‘Aftermath, the long grass left standing during the winter’ (EPNE). Not on record, but inferred from place-names in England.

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Fogo 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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fola 1 historical form

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A foal'.

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foot 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A foot'.

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ford 1 historical form

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A ford'.

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forest 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A forest', used to designate not only ancient forests but modern, recreational woodland areas.

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foster 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A forester' (CSD2, s.v. fostery).

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foul 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Foul, muddy, dirty'.

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foul 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Dirty, muddy'.

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Foulden 2 historical forms6 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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fox 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A fox'.

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friar, freer, frere 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A brother in or member of a religious order' la14- (CSD2).

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fugel 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A bird'.

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fuird 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A ford'. It can also appear as foord etc (SND). Frequently in place-names la11- (CSD2).

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fūl 1 historical form

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

 'Foul, muddy, dirty’.

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g(h)riain 1 place-name

Language: Gaelic (G), Part of Speech: N

'Gravel'.

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gair 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A strip of green grass (on a hillside); a patch of marshy ground in heather' la18-19, 20- Ork EC SW Bor (CSD2).

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gairy1 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A vertical outcrop of rock, a crag' 19- (CSD2).

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gairy2 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Striped'.

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gallow(s) 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A gallows'.

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garden 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A garden'.

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garrick 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A corner patch of land, an odd, irregularly shaped patch of land' (SND); the term is only recorded in Orkney.

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gars 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Grass'. Also gers, gras(s), gres(s).

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gate 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A road, street'.

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Gavin 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

A surname.

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George 2 place-names

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

A personal name.

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girth 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A place of refuge or sanctuary'.

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gled, glaid 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The kite Milvus milvus', frequently in place-names 12- (CSD2).

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glen 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A (narrow, steep-sided) mountain valley traversed by a river or stream' la12- (CSD2).

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glida 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A bird of prey, kite, glede' (DOE A-H). EPNE, s.v. gleoda, glioda, notes that most examples in English place-names are from the back-mutated form gleoda.

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God 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: P

'God, the Christian deity'; also SSE.

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gor 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'Dung, ordure; filth' (DOE A-H). Also found in English place-names in combination with (mainly) topographical generics.

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Gordon 3 historical forms3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Gordon East 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Gordon Mains 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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gorse 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Gorse, furze'.

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gowl, goule 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The throat, the jaws' 16- ; 'a narrow pass or hollow between hills', frequently in place-names la16- (CSD2).

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græf 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'A grave, trench, ditch' (DOE A-H, s.v. græf1). The element is difficult to differentiate from OE grāf ‘grove’ or OE grǣfe ‘a thicket, copse, cluster of brambles’, also ‘brushwood, brambles after having been cut or cleared’.

 

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grǣfe 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

‘A thicket, copse, cluster of brambles’, also ‘brushwood, brambles after having been cut or cleared’ (DOE A-H, s.v. grǣfe, ? grǣf). The element is difficult to differentiate from OE græf ‘a grave, trench, ditch' or OE grāf ‘a grove, a copse’.

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grǣg 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

'A wolf'. The term is most common as a colour adjective, the ancestor of PDE grey, but a transferred use in Old English to refer to a grey animal, believed to be the wolf, has been established from one literary occurrence (DOE A-H, s.v. grǣg, sense 2.d.i.a) and several in place-names.

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grāf 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

‘A grove, a copse’ (DOE A-H, s.v. grāf). The element is difficult to differentiate from OE græf ‘a grave, trench, ditch' or OE grǣfe ‘a thicket, copse, cluster of brambles’, also ‘brushwood, brambles after having been cut or cleared’.

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grain 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A branch or fork of a stream or river' (SND), the basic meaning being a branch.

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grange 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A grange; (monastic) farm’; also Scots. Derek Hall, in his book on the impact of the medieval monasteries on the Scottish landscape, describes a grange as follows: ‘The grange or estate centre formed the main focus of control for a monastic house on its landholdings’ (2006, 17). A large part of his book is taken up by a ‘Gazetteer of Scottish Monastic Granges’ (86–202), the Borders section, including Berwickshire (144–61), compiled by Ray Cachart, containing 26 entries of sites identified by documentary evidence and/or place-name as those of monastic granges.

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Grange 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Grange Burn CHM 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Grant 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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gray stane 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Ph

'Grey stone'.

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great 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Large (in size, quantity, extent or importance)' la12- (CSD2). Also Scots.

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green 2 historical forms

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A green'.

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green 1 historical form10 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Green'.

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green 2 historical forms6 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Green, grass-covered’ (CSD), in place-names often indicative of good grazing. Also SSE.

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green 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A green'.

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Greenburn 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Greenfield 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Greenhope 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Greenknowe 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Greenlaw 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Greenside 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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grēne 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Green'.

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Grizel 2 place-names

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

Early form of Griselda, found particularly in Scotland.

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gruel, growl 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Boiled oatmeal; thin porridge' la15- (CSD2). The first sense might be used in place-names with reference to places where oatmeal was grown; the second might be used with reference to sticky soil.

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Grunewald 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Gun 1 historical form

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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Gunn 1 historical form

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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Gunsgreen 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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hag 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A soft marshy hollow piece of ground in a moor, e.g. where channels have been made by water or where peats have been cut; “moss-ground that has formerly been broken up; a pit, or break in a moss”’ (Jamieson, Dictionary etc.). ‘Also used attributively and in such combinations as moss-hag, peat-hag, etc. Now General Scots. Also found in northern English dialect' (adapted from SND).

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Haig 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A Borders surname.

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halh 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A nook'. Discussing uses of the term in English place-names, LPN explains that "No modern English words can convey the topographical uses adequately. The 'nook' is sometimes formed not by contours but by water. In some areas halh is used for land between rivers or in a river-bend. In others it appears to be used for slightly raised ground isolated by marsh, ... There is also a clearly-defined 'administrative' sense, in which halh denotes a piece of land projecting from, or detached from, the main area of its administrative unit."

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hālig 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Holy'.

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hall 2 historical forms5 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A large, spacious building, the residence of a landowner' 14-; 'a large public meeting room' la16-; 'a farmhouse, the main dwelling of a farm or estate' 18- (CSD2). The term has undergone a semantic change known as 'deterioration'; thus the characteristic referent moves from a high-status to a low-status building, as reflected in the dates above and in the low-status specifics with which it frequently combines in later names.

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hall 3 historical forms18 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A large, spacious building, the residence of a landowner' 14-; 'a large public meeting room' la16-; 'a farmhouse, the main dwelling of a farm or estate' 18- (CSD2). As in Scots, it can be used ironically, often coupled with a low-status specific, to refer to a small, lowly building.

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hals 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A neck'; used in place-names with a transferred topographical sense referring to a narrow piece of land or stretch of water.

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haly 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Holy'.

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hām 4 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A settlement'; for recent discussion of this element in a Scottish context, see Alan G. James, 2010, ‘Scotland’s –ham and –ingham names: a reconsideration’, Journal of Scottish Name Studies 4, 103-30.

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hammer 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A hammer'; used metonymically in place-names to refer to a blacksmith's workshop or forge.

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hār 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Grey, hoary'. The colour adjective is applied in place-names particularly to rocks and stones, trees and bushes. Some of these are recorded as boundary markers, and hence a derived meaning 'boundary' has sometimes been suggested. However, work by Peter Kitson, "Quantifying Qualifiers in Anglo-Saxon Charter Boundaries", Folia Linguistica Historica 14.1-2 (1993), 29-82, indicates that this is fallacious, and DOE A-I also treats it as a colour adjective only.

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harbour 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A harbour'.

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Harcarse 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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hard 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Hard'; when applied in place-names it can refer to hardness of the soil, also 'stoney' or 'difficult to cultivate'.

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Hardie 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A common surname.

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hare 9 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A hare'; OE hara, gen. sing. haran.

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hare 1 historical form11 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Grey, greyish' (of ground, rocks or stones) 14-e16; 'bare, leafless or grey with lichen' (of woods) 13-16 (CSD2). However, since the term develops from OE hār (see entry for more detail), it is likely that usage was continuous despite the gap in records.

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Hare Law 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Harelaw WRR 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Harriet 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

A personal name.

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Harry 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

A personal name.

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Harry Burn 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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hart 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A stag'; earlier spellings include hert, hairt, heart (CSD2).

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Hartside 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Hassington 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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haugh 6 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Level ground, usually on the bank of a river, river-meadow land’. It is a development of OE halh, translated by Smith as ‘a nook, a corner of land, a water-meadow’ (1956, s.v.). See under halh for more details.

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haugh 4 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A haugh, a water-meadow; low land by water'. Also Scots.

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Hawks Law 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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head 12 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A head, end, top'; also Scots.

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Headshaw 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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heathery 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Heathery; associated with heather'. SND has: heatherie or heathery, adj., also hed(de)ry ‘covered with, made from heather; having the appearance of heather; hence, rough, dishevelled; mountain-bred’.

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hehstald 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A young unmarried man'; possibly also 'warrior'. The term is more common in Old Northumbrian than in Common Old English, where it takes the form hagosteald (DOE A-I, s.v. hago-steald noun1, hæg-steald). In place-names it may refer to land held by a younger son without inherited property.

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heich 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'High, high-lying'.

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heid 5 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘Head, end, top’. In late coinings, or names which appear late in the record (i.e. post 1750 or thereabouts) it is not always possible to distinguish between Scots heid and SSE headLocally both are heard depending on the language of the speaker.

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hen 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A female domestic fowl'. Used in place-names with a wider sense, including wild fowl.

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hen 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A female domestic fowl'. Used in place-names with a more general sense, including wild fowl.

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hen toe 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Ph

'A hen's toe', referring to shape.

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herd 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A herd', in the sense either of 'herd of beasts' or of the person charged with their care.

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Heriot 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname derived from the lands of Heriot in Midlothian, but with some currency in the Borders.

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heritage 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

The technical term for property in the form of land and houses, 'because it passed to the heir on the owner's death' (SND).

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hern 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The grey heron'.

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Herriot 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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heuch 1 historical form4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A precipice, crag, cliff, a steep hill’; the form heuch is the head-form in both DOST and SND, but it appears in place-names more frequently as heugh. The Scots reflex of OE hōh ‘heel’ (DOST), it describes a different landscape-feature from that proposed by Gelling and Cole for its OE counterpart (2000, 186). See also under OE hōh.

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heuch 1 historical form5 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A precipice, crag, cliff, a steep hill'; also Scots.

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hextild 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A young unmarried man'; possibly also 'warrior'. The term is not recorded in Scots, but could have developed from Old Northumbrian hehstald.

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high 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'High'.

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hill 2 historical forms87 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A hill'; can also be Scots.

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hill 2 historical forms23 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A hill'; also 'upland grazing'.

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Hillhouse 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Hilton 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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hind 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A farm servant, a ploughman'.

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hind 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A female deer'.

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hindberry 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The wild raspberry', also recorded in the spelling hyndberry.

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Hirsel Law 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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hirst 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A piece of barren, unproductive ground; a hard or rocky mound or ridge, the summit of a rocky hill' 15-19, 20- ; also 'a bank of sand or gravel in a harbour or river; a ford or shallow in a river' la16-19, 20- (CSD2).

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hlǣne 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Poor quality, unproductive (land)'. The OE term is only recorded in connection with the human body ('thin, lean' etc.), but a transferred meaning referring to poor quality land appears in Scots from 1380 (DOST, s.v. lene, adj, sense 2), and in English from c.1420 (OED, s.v. lean, sense 4a).

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hlāw 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

Also hlǣw. Discussed at length by Smith under hlāw, the basic meaning is 'burial mound, tumulus', but it is frequently applied to 'a hill, a conical hill resembling a tumulus', (Smith 1956 i, 249), who states that, as a topographical term, it survives as law in Co. Durham and Northumberland, and as low in the north-west Midlands. The latest research by Gelling and Cole (LPN) confirms the most common meaning as 'tumulus, hill'. DOE A-H notes that most occurrences are in charter bounds; other citations are mainly from poetry, a genre that frequently shares vocabulary with the toponymicon.

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hog 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A young sheep, a yearling'.

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hog 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A young sheep, a yearling'.

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hōh 4 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

‘A heel, a projecting ridge of land, promontory’ (DOE A-H).

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holding 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A small-holding'.

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hole 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A hole; a pool'.

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Home 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

The family name of the Earls of Home, alternatively spelled Hume.

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home farm 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'The home farm of an estate'.

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hop 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'Remote, enclosed place’. The best discussion of this element is to be found in Gelling and Cole (2000, 133-40), superseding Smith’s discussion of hop (1956 i, s.v.). ‘With very few exceptions OE names in hop fall easily into one of two main categories, “enclosure in marsh or wasteland” and “remote valley”. The sense of concealment is probably the link between the two’ (133). It has developed in Older Scots hope (also hoip, hop, howp) ‘a small enclosed upland valley, a sloping hollow between two hills’ (DOST), so used only to refer to a relief feature.

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Hope 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname; common among the informants listed in the Ordnance Survey Name Book for Berwickshire.

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hope 1 historical form6 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Also hoip, hop, howp; ‘a small enclosed upland valley’; ‘a sloping hollow between two hills’ (Jamieson). ‘Early examples occur frequently in southern Scottish placenames, as Ruhope, Berhope (c.1190), Elrehope (c.1200), Hollehope (1200–2)’ (DOST). DOST gives a good citation from Wyntoun, VII, 51 (W) [Chron. Wyntoun: The Original Chronicle of Andrew of Wyntoun, ed. F. J. Amours, 6 vols, STS 1903–14]: ‘A faire braid plane and a plesand, But hope or hill’ (‘without valley or hill’), where hope is used as the generic word for ‘valley’ reciprocating with hill. It has developed from OE hop ‘remote, enclosed place’ (see Gelling and Cole 2000, 133-40).

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hopper 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A hopper, the receptacle for grain passing into a mill' (DOST), perhaps used metaphorically in place-names with reference to shape.

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Hoprig 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Horford 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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horn 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A horn', used metaphorically in place-names for something shaped like a horn, such as a projecting piece of land or a river-bend.

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Horn Burn 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Horndean 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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horse 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A horse'.

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horse 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A horse'. Also SSE.

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Horseley 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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horseshoe 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A horseshoe-shaped feature'.

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Horseupcleugh 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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horu 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

OE horu (m.), gen. sing. horwes ‘dirt, filth, foulness’ (Bosworth-Toller); Smith 1956 under horu: ‘filth, dirt’ ‘probably confused in form with the related horh OE “phlegm, mucus”’. In place-names presumably chiefly referring to mud.

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hotel 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A hotel'.

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hound 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A hound, a dog'.

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hound 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A hunting dog'.

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Houndwood 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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house 6 historical forms42 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A house'; in place-names often referring to a relatively grand dwelling.

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house 1 historical form6 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A house'.

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howe 1 historical form4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A hollow or low-lying piece of ground’ (SND); also how, earlier holl and hol(e). It can also be an adjective ‘hollow, deep-set’ as well as being used attributively as in how road ‘a hollow way’ (SND).

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howlat 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'An owl'.

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Howlaws 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Howpark 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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hrīs 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'Shrubs, brushwood' (Smith 1956 i, 265).

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Huldie 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A Borders surname.

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hule 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A perverse or objectionable person or animal; a troublesome child' 19- East Central, South West, Borders; 'a name for the devil' la19- South West, Borders (CSD2).

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Hume 6 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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hummel 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Naturally hornless'; also 'polled', of animals, hence 'without projections, with a flat, level appearance, smooth'. Apparently also used substantively (i.e. as a noun for an entity thus distinguished), as Humbles Knowe appears to have a genitive singular noun inflection.

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hund 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A dog, generally'; also 'a hunting dog, a hound' (DOST).

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hungry 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

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hunt 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'The hunt'.

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hunt 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The hunt'.

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hunta 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A hunter'.

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hunter 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A huntsman'.

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hunting 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The practice or act of hunting' la14- ; 'hunting-grounds' la15-17 (CSD2).

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Huntshaw 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Hurd Law 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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hurker 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Apparently a term for a rock, but unattested outside place-names.

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hūs 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'A house'.

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Hutton 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Hutton Castle 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Huxton 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname recorded among the Ordnance Survey Name Book informants for Coldingham. It may derive from the place-name Huxton in Coldingham, or it may have given rise to it.

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hwīt 4 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'White'.

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hyll 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A hill'; also f.

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i(r) 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: D

The definite article 'the'; for a recent discussion of this element in place-names, see BLITON under ï[r], with references. 

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inch 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Low-lying land by water’; also ‘a piece of rising ground in the middle of a [boggy] plain’ (CSD). It is also occasionally found with the meaning ‘small island’ (CSD). It is a loan-word from G innis, with a similar range of meanings.

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Inchkeith 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

A farm in Lauder parish and an island in the Firth of Forth (Kinghorn FIF).

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inis 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'An island; in place-names, frequently a relatively dry piece of land in a marshy or flood-prone location’ (BLITON, where the form given is ïnïs).

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inn 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'An inn'.

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inner 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Inner'; i.e. as opposed to 'outer'.

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Jardin 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

Also Jardine, Jardane etc.

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Jeanie 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

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Jeanie's Wood 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Jock 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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John  1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Gender M

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Jordan 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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Jordonlaw 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Joshua 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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Justice 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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kame 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A comb; a long, narrow, steep-sided mound or ridge, a hill-ridge’ (SND).

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keel 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Ruddle, red ochre, used especially for marking sheep’ (SND).

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Kelmscott 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Kelphope 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Kennetside 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

A hypothetical name, surviving only in Kennetsideheads ECC.

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Kerson 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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Ketill 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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Kidshiel 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Kimmerghame 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Kincraig 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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king 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

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Kippetlaw 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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kippit 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'(Of a hill) 'having "kips" or jutting outcrops of rock or boulder' (?) DOST.

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kirk 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A church'; used both in Scots and SSE.

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kirk 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A church'.

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kirkgate 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A road to a church'.

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kirkland 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE)

'Land belonging to a church'.

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kirktoun 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A town or village situated by a church; especially, the hamlet in which the parish church of a rural parish is. (Chiefly in place-names.)’ (DOST).

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kittle 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Easily upset or offended, difficult to deal with; unreliable, fickle' (CSD2). In place-names, forms a derogatory name-type Kittlenakit, referring to poor land.

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Knock 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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knock 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A (small) hill'. It is usually said that, in Scotland at least, this is a loan-word into Scots from Gaelic cnoc 'a hill'. However, both Smith (1956) and VEPN posit a native OE *cnocc ‘a hill, hillock’. Although this does not appear in the OE lexicon or corpus of words, its existence is ‘fairly well supported by cognates’ such as knock, a word found along the south-east English coast meaning ‘sand-bank’ (VEPN under *cnocc). There is also a Danish dialect word knok 'little hillock' (Smith 1956 i, 103).

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knowe 2 historical forms7 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A knoll or small hill'.

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knowe 2 historical forms6 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A small hill, a knoll'; also Scots.

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Kolbrandr 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

An ON personal name.

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kross 1 place-name

Language: Old Norse (ON), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A cross'.

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Kyle 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A family name deriving originally from Kyle in Ayrshire (Black 1946, 409).

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kyle 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A ninepin, a skittle' (both DOST and SND).

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lady 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Gender F

'A lady'.

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lady 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A lady, Our Lady'; in place-names usually referring to St Mary ('Our Lady'). See Hough 2009 [Hough, Carole, 2009, ‘“Find the Lady”: The Term lady in English and Scottish Place-Names’, in Names in Multi-Lingual, Multi-Cultural and Multi-Ethnic Contact: Proceedings of the 23rd ICOS, ed. Wolfgang Ahrens, Sheila Embleton and André Lapierre (York University, Toronto), 511–18.]

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Ladykirk 4 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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laigh 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Low'.

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lair 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A place where cattle or sheep lie down; a part of a pasture where cattle or sheep go or are taken to rest’ (DOST); similarly CSD.

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lake 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A lake'.

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lamb 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A lamb'.

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lamb 3 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'A lamb'. The noun belongs to a type of declension that forms plurals in r: nominative/accusative lambru, genitive lambra, dative lambrum. However, 10 occurrences of a genitive plural form lamba are also on record. A Northumbrian variant is lombor.

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Lambden 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Lamberton 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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land 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Land'.

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land 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Land'.

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landsend 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'(A feature at the) end of a piece of land or lands'.

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lang 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Long'.

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lang 4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Long'.

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Langton 4 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Langtonlees 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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latch 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

This is the Standard Scottish English form of Sc latch, 'a small burn, especially one flowing through boggy ground; a mire, patch of bog’ (CSD; SND). See under Sc latch, for more details.

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Lauder 6 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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laverock 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

A skylark.

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Laverock (Law) 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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law 7 historical forms52 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A hill'; also SSE. See discussion in Place-Names of Fife 5, Elements Glossary under law.

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law 3 historical forms32 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A hill'; also Scots.

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Laws 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

The existing name Laws is also known as Whitsome Laws.

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Laws Moor 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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lazybed 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Rig and furrow'.

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lea 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Pasture, grassland'.

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lēah 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A wood, clearing, pasture, meadow'.

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Leet (Water) 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Legerwood 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Lennel Hill 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Leodgeard 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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ley 10 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Tilled ground now pasture, open grassland’, CSD; lea; 'untilled ground, ground which has been left fallow for some time and is now covered by grass, ground that has been tilled and which is now in pasture; originally part of the outfield; the second meaning is in rotational farming: the first crop of corn after grass, a shortened form of lea or ley corn. From OE *lǣge- "fallow"' (SND); OSc ley(e), lay  lie etc. ‘lea, or land which has been left untilled for some time and allowed to return to grass, arable land under grass used as pasture; also, a piece of such land, and plural’ (DOST). Smith defines OE lǣge (adj.) as ‘fallow, unploughed, lying untilled’, pointing out that in OE it is only found in compounds, but is in more general use in ME as leye, laye (1955 ii, s.v.).

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light 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Light-coloured'.

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Lilla 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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linn 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A waterfall, cataract, cascade of water'; also lin, lyn(n), lyne etc., deriving from OE hlynn ‘torrent’, literally ‘the noisy one’ (CSD and Smith 1956 i, 254).

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lint 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The flax plant'.

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Linthill 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Lintlaw 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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little 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Small in quantity or size' la14-; of two places of the same name 'smaller or less important'; frequently in place-names la14- (CSD2). Also Scots.

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little 3 historical forms3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Small in quantity or size' la14-; of two places of the same name 'smaller or less important'; frequently in place-names la14- (CSD2).

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Littlehill 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Liulf 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

Also spelled Ligulf.

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loan 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A grassy track for livestock’ usually leading through arable land to the grazing lands; originally ‘before the enclosing of fields, a strip of grass of varying breadth running through the arable part of a farm and frequently linking it with the common grazing ground of the community, serving as a pasture, a driving road and a milking place for the cattle of the farm or village and as a common green’ (SND).

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loan 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A grassy track for livestock'. Also Scots.

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loch 1 historical form5 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A loch, a lake'; also Scots, a loan-word from Gaelic loch.

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loch 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A loch, a lake'; also SSE.

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Lockie 1 historical form

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

For details of the surname Lockie, see under The Howe LAU.

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lodge 2 historical forms3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A gate-house'; also 'a hut, a shelter'. It can also refer to a small, remote house, as in Lockies Lodge, a small house in the Lammermuirs occupied by a (shep)herd.

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Lodge 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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long 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Long'.

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Longformacus 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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longphort 1 place-name

Language: Gaelic (G), Part of Speech: N

'Encampment', 'hunting lodge or both', 'shieling'. This word has a variety of meanings, for some of which see Watson 1926, 493-5. See als Place-Names of Fife 5 (Elements Glossary) s.v. for a full discussion, and the tentative suggestion that it may originally have been a loan-word from Old English into Old Gaelic.

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lowrie 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A fox'.

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Lowry 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

A hypocoristic form of Lawrence, also written Lowrie/Laurie etc.

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Lumsdaine 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Lylestane 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Maccus 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

This name is found as the first element in the surname Maxwell and the place-name Maxton ROX. For a detailed discussion, see Thornton 1997 [Thornton, David E., 1997, ‘Hey, Mac! The Name Maccus, Tenth to Fifteenth Centuries’, Nomina, 20, 67-98], including Appendix II: Talkarn Mackus, O. J. Padel, 95-98.

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Mack 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

 A surname.

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Maelóc 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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Magdalene 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

Possibly the saint.

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Maiden 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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maiden 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A maiden'.

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mains 8 historical forms27 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

‘The home farm of an estate, cultivated by or for the proprietor’, ultimately from Latin dominicum ‘the lord’s (lands)’, via Old French demeine, whence also English demesne (also English domain) (OED). Also Scots.

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Mains 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Mains of Old Cambus.

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Mains 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Mains of Hassington ECC.

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mains 5 historical forms9 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘The home farm of an estate, cultivated by or for the proprietor’, ultimately from Latin dominicum ‘the lord’s (lands)’, via Old French demeine, whence also English demesne (also English domain) (OED). Also SSE.

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Maldred 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

For a discussion of this personal name, see under Manderston DNS.

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Manderston 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Marchmont 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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marl 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Marl'.

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Mary 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

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Maurice 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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Maw Carr 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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may 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Hawthorn' especially hawthorn in bloom.

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May 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'The month of May'.

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meadow 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A meadow'.

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Meadow House 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

See Broadmeadows House HUT, which is the later name of Meadow House.

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Meg 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

A hypocoristic (pet) form of Margaret.

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meikle 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

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meikle 4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Big'.

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Mellerstain 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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mere 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A pond, lake, pool; wetland' (LPN).

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merry, mirrie 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Cheerful, happy, carefree' (CSD2) could perhaps be used in minor names to refer to good quality land in the same way as terms such as laughing.

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Mērsa 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

Mērsa A shortened form of the hypothetical OE personal name Mǣrsige or Mērsige.

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mersc 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A marsh; a tract of low-lying alluvial land; also merisc. It is defined in EPNE as 'a marsh; watery land'. DOST under mersk cites OE. męrse, merise 'a tract of low-lying alluvial land', noting the modern south English  dialect word mersk 'marsh'. It may be the equivalent of Sc carse, found for example in the Carse of Gowrie, the fertile, low-lying land between the Tay and the Sidlaws in Perthshire.

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mersingas 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

'Marsh-dwellers; people who live in or beside a marsh'.

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Mersington 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Mertoun 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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mid 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE)

'Middle; situated between two other similar features'.

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middle 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Middle, mid-'.

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middle 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Middle; lying mid-way'.

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mill 20 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A mill'.

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Mill Burn DNS/LGT 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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millar 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A miller' (also milner etc) (DOST).

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Millar's Moss 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Milldown 1 historical form

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Millerton 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Miller  1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname. Can also be spelled Millar.

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Millknowe GRE 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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miln 2 historical forms14 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A mill'.

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Milne Graden 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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mire 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘Mire, marsh, bog’, found in dozens of Scottish place-names, and spelled both mire and myre.

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mire 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Swampy ground, bog'.

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mirie 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Boggy, marshy'.

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mittenful 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A mitten- or handful'.

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monid 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N

‘Hill, upland, range of hills’; BLITON form *mönïδ; cognate with Welsh mynydd and Scottish Gaelic monadh.

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monk 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A monk'.

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moor 16 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A moor'.

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Moor Law 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Moorside 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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mooth, mouth 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The outfall of a river', frequently in place-names la11- (CSD2).

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mōr 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Marsh', 'barren upland'. The relationship between these two meanings is uncertain, and is discussed in LPN pp. 58-59, which draws attention to "numerous instances" of the term used for both high and low features.

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Mordington 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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morning 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

In the sense of east-facing, exposed to the (morning) sun. See Dixon 1947, 76-7.

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Morriston 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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morþ 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Death, murder’; Smith 1956 i under morð ‘murder’, gives as examples Morpeth and Mortgrove (Hertfordshire); not in VEPN M-draft.

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Morven 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

A standard house-name.

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moss 2 historical forms9 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A marsh, bog, tract of wet ground’, also ‘a bog from which peats are dug, a moorland allocated to tenants of an estate for cutting fuel’ (CSD). Also Scots. This is to be distinguished from SSE moss referring to the plant.

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moss 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Boggy ground, moorland', also 'a peat bog; a stretch of moorland allocated to tenants for cutting fuel' (CSD2).

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moss-road 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A road to a moss or peat-bog'.

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mount 6 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A (small) hill'; it is often used in an antiquarian or fanciful way to refer to small hills or (artificial) mounds.

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mouth 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A mouth'; often used of the mouth of a river.

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muir 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A stretch of rough grazing'; often confused with Scots and SSE moor.

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muir 8 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A muir; a stretch of rough grazing'; in Older Scots also mure, mor(e), moir, etc., defined as 1. 'barren open country, moorland, heath'; and 1b as 'a tract of open uncultivated ground appropriated to a proprietor or a community; a common; a park’ (DOST under mure). Later Sc muir is defined in CSD2 as: 'A tract or expanse of heath; barren open country', also 'rough, uncultivated land belonging to an individual proprietor or estate', or 'unenclosed uncultivated ground; the common land belonging to a burgh'. For a re-assessment of this word, stressing its importance as a grazing resource, see Whittington 1991, 17-18.

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Muircleugh 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Muircleugh LAU.

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Mungo 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

A hypocoristic form of Kentigern, the patron saint of Glasgow. It also occurs as a male personal name.

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næss, nes 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A projecting piece of land' (LPN). According to LPN, the most common use is for 'low-lying land jutting into water or marsh'. Referents include 'flat, marshy, coastal promontories', 'promontories with slightly raised ground', 'a tongue of land between streams', and, occasionally, 'striking inland hills or ridges'.

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Naitan 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

British personal name related to Gaelic Nechtan.

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nakit 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Naked', frequently used in place-names of land 'devoid of vegetation, bare, barren' (CSD2).

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Namel 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

An otherwise unrecorded personal name, although this is unlikely.

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Nan 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

A hypocoristic or pet form of Ann(e).

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nature reserve 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Ph

'A nature reserve'.

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Nenthorn 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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ness, nes 4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A headland or promontory', frequently in place-names la12- (CSD2).

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nesu 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

'A nose'. This word is not recorded in OE texts, so this is a hypothetical form. Watts (PNDurham 2007) has reconstructed it as *nesu 'nose, headland, promontory' while Smith has OE *nēs (ME nese) ‘“the nose”, hence “a headland, a promontory, a projecting piece of land formed in the bend of a river”’ (1956 ii, s.v.).

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Net 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

A hypothetical name for the river now known as Monynut Water.

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nether 5 historical forms

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Lower'.

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neuk 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A nook, outlying or remote place, an obscure corner, a lurking place’ (CSD), also ‘projecting corner of land’.

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new 4 historical forms2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'New'.

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new 6 historical forms4 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'New'.

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Newton 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

[NOTE: This should be Newton WHI, as under West Newton WHI.]

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Newton ECC 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Newton FOU 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Newton WHI 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Nisbet 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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north 1 historical form4 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'North, north-lying'.

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north 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'North, north-lying'.

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nun 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A nun'.

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nunland 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Land belonging to a nunnery’.

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of 2 historical forms

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Pr

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of 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Pr

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old 3 historical forms7 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Old'.

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Old Cambus 1 historical form4 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Old Town 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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orchard 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'An orchard'.

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otter 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'An otter'.

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out 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Outlying; outer'.

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outer 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Outer'; i.e. as opposed to 'inner'.

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over 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE)

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over 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Upper'.

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owl 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'An owl'.

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ox 3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'An ox'.

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Pace 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A male name. See discussion under Paxton HUT. 

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pæð 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

'A path, a track' (grammatical gender is variable).

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park 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

In Older Scots it is defined as ‘a piece of land enclosed for a particular purpose; originally a tract of land in which beasts of chase were kept; a piece of enclosed woodland or forest;’ also ‘land set aside for recreation; gardens'; and ‘a meadow or pasturage; a field (? chiefly or only, for grazing)’ (DOST). In modern Scots, and to some extent in SSE, it is this final meaning, which has come to dominate, applied to any kind of field. It is found as both a specific and a generic in place-names.

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park 1 historical form7 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

‘Park, a piece of land enclosed for a particular purpose, a field’; in names dating from the middle ages, it always refers to land emparked or enclosed for hunting. In modern times it is a standard Scots and SSE word for a field. Also Scots.

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partan 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A partan, edible crab’, from G partan ‘A small, edible crab’.

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Pate 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

According to Black 1946 (Surnames), Pate (as a surname) derives from a pet-form of Patrick. See also under Patie. It can therefore be either a family name or the name of an individual (male).

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Paul 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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Paxton 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Paxton HUT.

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Pease 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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peat 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Peat'.

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peel 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Also pele, peil etc. (1) 'A palisade or fence of stakes, a stockade; the ground enclosed by such' (SND). See also the elements Scots pilmuir and Scots peelrig. (2) 'A fortified house or small defensive tower, ? originally one surrounded by such a stockade or by a moated rampart' (DOST).

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peelrig 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Also peil-rig 'a ridge or strip of land on a pilmuir. Found in place-names, as Pilrig in Edinburgh' (SND). A pilmuir is 'a piece of common land [or rough grazing] enclosed by a fence (a peel or pele) and cultivated as arable ground' (SND). 

See also Scots pilmuir.

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Peelwalls 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Penman 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Penman 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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Penmanshiel 3 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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peth 5 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A path, steep road’; DOST also defines peth as ‘(a) A cleft, re-entrant or ? water-course, running up and down the slope of a steep hill, and so offering a passage to its top. Passing into: (b) A steep path or track leading to the top of a hill’. Compare OE pæð and ME peth ‘cattle track, path’ (see also Smith 1956 ii, 58, s.v.).

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Philip 1 historical form2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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pickie 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

A reduced form of Scots pickiemaw or pickymaw (also pickmaw) 'the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus)' (SND).

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Piers 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

A form of Peter, originally French.

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Piers Knowe 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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piet 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A magpie' (also pyet, pyot etc.).

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pike 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A pike’, also ‘a projecting spur or spike’, or ‘sharp pointed hill or pile of stones’ (SND).

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pilmuir 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A piece of common land enclosed by a fence (a peel or pele; also pale, pail) and cultivated as arable ground, common in place-names in various counties of Scotland’; see SND under peel.

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pitill 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A bird of prey (of uncertain identity), possibly ... the buzzard, Buteo buteo, or the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus’ (OED under pyttel). Note that pitill is not in DOST or SND.

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place 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A town or village; a residence or house; a holding of land; an estate, farm or croft' (CSD2, sense 3).

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place 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A town or village; a residence or house; a holding of land; an estate, farm or croft' (CSD2, sense 3).

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plantation 4 historical forms29 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A plantation (of trees)'.

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pleasant 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Pleasant, pleasing'.

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pleuchland 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Ploughland'; it can be compared with 'Middle English and early Modern English plouȝ-lond (c.1394) the name used in the northern and eastern counties of England, after the Norman Conquest, for the unit of assessment of land, based upon the area capable of being tilled by one plough-team of eight oxen in the year’ (OED) (approx. = 120 acres); ... 'A ploughland, equivalent to eight oxgangs or (more or less) 104 acres' (DOST). It can also appear as pleuchgate (later ploughgate) or carrucate/carucate.

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Ploughlands 1 historical form

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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point 1 historical form5 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A point; a headland'.

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Polwarth 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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poo 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Also pou, pow. The common edible crab, Cancer pagurus' (SND).

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pool 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A pool'.

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pott 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

'A deep hole or pool; a pit'. The word is not attested in English until the 15th century, but OED (s.v. pot, n.2) notes that literary evidence is predated by place-names, the earliest being Potlock in Derbyshire (Potlack 1086). In Scots, the earliest attestation is found in Barbour's The Bruce (1375), but DOST, s.v. pot(t, n.2, also provides a number of earlier occurrences in place-names. Distribution is mainly in Scotland and northern England.

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pow 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A slow-moving stream or ditch flowing through carseland' 14- (CSD2).

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prenn 2 place-names

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A tree'.

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prēost 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A priest'.

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prēs 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Brushwood, scrub, a thicket’, developing the sense of ‘managed (coppiced) bushes’. The word was adopted in Old Gaelic as pres, G preas ‘a bush’. On the etymology, including its relationship to pert[h] and prenn, see Hamp 1982 [Hamp, Eric P., 1982, ‘Note on perth, prenn, prys’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 29 (1980-2), 85]. On the vowel quantity, see Jackson, LHEB §35, 340-4: Anglicised forms generally show a lengthened vowel, though Middle English/ Scots shortening has affected some names.

This word is found in two of the awdlau attributed to Taliesin: BT61(VII) kat ym prysc. kat leu: J. T. Koch (SNSBI Conference, Bearsden 1997) identifies the latter as Catlow YWR (PNYWR6 p. 201).

BT63(XII) ystadyl tir penprys: Gruffyd (1994), p. 71, citing T. O. Clancy, identifies this as Dumfries, while Breeze 2002c, [full reference to be supplied], 171, favours Press Castle BWK. All the above adapted from BLITON.

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Press 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Preston 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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priest 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A priest'; OSc prest(e), preist(e) (DOST). In place-names it can be usually be assumed to refer to a minister of the Pre-Reformation (pre-1560) Church.

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Printonan 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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pulpit 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A pulpit'.

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Purves 2 place-names

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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Putton DNS 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Pyatshaw LMS 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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pyttel 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N

Bosworth-Toller Supplement (OE Dictionary) gives the meaning 'mouse-hawk', with no indication of what kind of bird of prey that might be. Smith (1956 ii, s.v.) gives 'a hawk, a mousehawk', adding 'possibly used as a by-name as in Pittleworth (Hants)' etc. The OED has under pittel, OE pyttel (also OE pittel, ME puttel; OSc pitill) ‘a bird of prey (of uncertain identity), possibly ... the buzzard, Buteo buteo, or the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus’ (OED). Note that pitill is not in DOST or SND.

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quarter 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A quarter; one piece of land or territory divided into 4'.

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quarter 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

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Quixwood 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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racecourse 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A racecourse'.

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Rachel 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

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rae 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A roe deer'.

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Raitt 1 historical form

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname.

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ram 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A ram, a male sheep'.

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raw 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A row of houses'.

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raw, row 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A row of houses'.

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Rawburn 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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red 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Red'.

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Redpath 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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reedy 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Reedy, characterised by reeds'.

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Regna 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

A short form of the personal name Regenwald (Williamson 1942, 9).

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reid 4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Red'; it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between Scots reid ‘red’ and Scots rede or reid ‘reed’. 

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Renton 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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reservoir 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A reservoir'.

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Reston 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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retreat 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

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rice 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A small branch or twig of a growing tree or bush; such small branches or twigs, collectively, a bush; dense, twiggy wood-growth, brushwood, freq. along the banks of a river’, with variants rise, rys(e), ryis, rysse, ryce) (DOST). From OE hrīs 'shrubs, brushwood'.

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Rickie 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

A hypocoristic form of Richard.

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Riddel 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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ridge 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A ridge'.

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rig 5 historical forms29 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A ridge, long narrow hill or strip of land’ (SND); a 'strip of ploughed land raised in the middle and sloping gradually to a furrow on either side, in the pre-agrarian revolution system of agriculture, usu. bounded by patches of uncultivated grazing ground' (SND).

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rig 1 historical form16 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A ridge of land; a strip of arable'. Also Scots; see Scots rig for more details.

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river 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A river'.

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road 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A road'.

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roadside 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A roadside'.

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rock 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A rock'; also Scots.

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rook 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A rook', a member of the crow family.

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ros 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N

'Promontory, headland'. See BLITON under *rōs for a full discussion.

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ros 1 place-name

Language: Gaelic (G), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Headland, promontory, isthmus, peninsula’, (genitive singular rois). It can sometimes also mean ‘wood’, and is cognate with Welsh rhos ‘promontory, moor’.

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ross 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Headland, promontory'. A hypothetical loan-word into Scots from Gaelic ros, same meaning. See discussion under Ross MRD BWK.

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Ross 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Rough Side 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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ruch 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Rough'.

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ruck 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Also rowk(e)rook 'a stack of hay or corn of a standard shape; a heap or pile of any material' (SND).

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Rule 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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Rumbleton 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Rutherford 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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Ruthven 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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rye-miln 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A mill for grinding rye; a mill which mainly grinds rye'.

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Scar Law 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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scaur 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

The SND under the head-word scaur gives the following variants: scar(re), skarre; scare, skair, skare, sker(r), skear (Dmf. 1812 W. Singer Agric. Dmf. 539); skir, skyr (Sc. 1887 Jam.)’, defining it as: ‘a sheer rock, crag, precipice, cliff, a steep hill from which the soil has been washed away’.

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sceaga 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A small wood'.

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Scott 2 place-names

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A common Borders surname, the best-known bearer being Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), the famous writer from the Scottish Borders.

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scoured 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Scoured, rubbed bare'.

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scout 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Common guillemot (Uria aalge)' or 'razorbill (Alca torda)' (SND); according to OED it can also apply to a puffin, while green scoot is a green cormorant (i.e. a shag). Almost all the examples given in OED are from Scotland, with one from Northumberland. Its origin is obscure, but it is probably related to scoter, as in the common scoter (Melanitta nigra nigra), a black sea-duck.

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Sebastopol 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Sel Burn 1 historical form

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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setl 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

‘A seat, an abode, a dwelling’, with variants seld, sedl, *seðl (Smith 1956 s.v.). It can also be neut.

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several 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

Applied to land or territory it means 'a. privately owned or occupied. b. belonging to an individual (kingdom), sovereign, not common or debateable (DOST).

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shaw 6 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A small wood; copse; grove, thicket’ (DOST; also schaw(e)). From OE sceaga, scaga m., pl. sceagan, ‘a small wood, a copse, a strip of undergrowth or wood’ (Smith 1956 under sceaga). It can appear in English place-names as Shaw and Shay (for which see also Higham 1989 [‘shay names – a need for reappraisal?’, Nomina 12, 89-104)].

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shaw 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

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shiel 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A shieling; a bothy'.

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shiel 1 historical form12 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Also spelled sheil (with shiel the head-word in Concise Scots Dictionary); a shieling or shiel is defined by SND as: ‘A hut or rude shelter, a temporary house of stones, sods, etc., esp. one built for the accommodation of shepherds and dairy maids in the higher or more remote areas used as summer grazing ground for sheep and cattle’. In *Samsonshiels CHK they are translated into Latin as logis (dative plural), as in Logis Samsonis in the phrase 'a meadow in the shielings of Samson' (unum pratum in Logis Samsonis) c.1250 x c.1290 Dryburgh Liber no. 183; while Samson himself is referred to as Samsonis de Logis ('Samson of the Shiels') c.1220 x 1229 (Dryburgh Liber no. 176). See under Shielfield LAU for more details). They are also Latinised as scalingas (feminine accusative plural) (e.g. 1165 x 1170 Kelso Liber ii no. 321).

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Shielfield 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Shielfield EAR.

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shining 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Shining'.

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shore 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE)

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shot, schot 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A piece of ground, especially one cropped rotationally; a smallholding' la16- (CSD2). As noted in DOST, s.v. s(c)hot, "In our records only in south eastern Scotland, south of the Forth". This supports a derivation from OE scēot 'corner of land' suggested by CSD2, despite the gap of more than three centuries between attestations.

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shuttle 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A shuttle'; in place-names, used metaphorically to refer to shape, or metonymically to refer to a weaver.

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side 3 historical forms7 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A side', e.g. used of a hill-side, or of land beside a feature such as a stream, moor, bog, road etc.

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sīde 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A hill-side'.

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side 5 historical forms13 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A hill-side; side'; the latter usually referring to land or settlement beside the feature which forms the specific element of a compound name, as in Burnside, Gateside etc.

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silver 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Silver'.

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Simper 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A very doubtful Old English personal name, suggested by early spellings of Simprim.

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Simprim 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Sinclair 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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sister 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A nun, a sister (female religious)’; its basic meaning is a female sibling, but in place-names it generally refers to nuns.

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Sisterpath 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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skaith 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

The most recent thinking on the difficult element skaith in both English and Scottish place-names is to be found in Whaley 2017. In this article she sets out the many theories as to the meaning of this element, along with the supporting data from both England and Scotland, concluding that in at least some cases the meaning is likely to be 'racecourse, running track', deriving from Old Norse (Old West Scandinavian) skeið (n.) with the same meaning.

[Whaley, Diana, 2017, ‘A far-travelled word: Old Norse skeið “racecourse, running track” in early literature and place-names’, in Die Faszination des Verborgenen und seine Entschlüsselung – Rāđi saR kunni: Beiträge zur Runologie, skandinavistischen Mediävistik und germanischen Sprachwissenschaft, ed. Krüger, Jana; Busch, Vivian; Seidel, Katharina; Zimmermann, Christiane; and Zimmermann, Ute (Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde - Ergänzungsbände 101) (Berlin).]

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slæd 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

Defined by Smith as ‘a valley’, but in some English dialects slad(e) has developed the meaning ‘a breadth of greensward in ploughed land, a broad strip of greensward between two woods, generally in a valley’ (Smith 1956 under slæd). Bosworth-Toller, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary gives the word as slæ̅d (or slēd) with similar meanings. Williamson defines OE slæd as ‘“low flat valley, slope, hollow”’ (1942, 106).

It is discussed in an English context with much useful detail by Gelling and Cole under its own head-word (2000, 141-2; see also 295). They open the discussion with the statement: ‘It is difficult to give a meaningful translation for the OE ancestor of modern slade’, but they go on to suggest that it signifies some kind of a valley, adding: ‘The valleys for which slæd is used are probably never main valleys’ (ibid., 141).

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slaid 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Also slaid, slede ‘an open space, a forest glade or dell, a hollow or valley’ (DOST). It cites as the earliest attestation of this word the Berwickshire place-name Whitslaid, giving the form Witslede from ‘Liber Calchou 205’ (i.e. Kelso Liber i no. 248). While this certainly contains the element in question, it cannot refer to Whitslaid LEG (see the discussion under that name). 

Williamson, in her discussion of OE slæd, mentions ‘ModSc slaid, “hollow between rising grounds, especially with a rivulet”’, citing Jamieson, Dictionary under slaid (1942, 106). It should be noted that neither CSD or SND appears to have this word.

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sleg 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A large, heavy hammer, a sledgehammer' (DOST).

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Sleigh 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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smiddy 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A smithy, a blacksmith's’.

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snaw 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Snow'.

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snāw 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Snow'.

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Snawdon 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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sneep 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

This is not recorded as a word in DOST or SND, but its existence in place-names such as Sneep BWK suggests that there was a Scots descendant of OE *snæp which probably means ‘a boggy piece of land’, and which can be compared with present-day English regional (south-west) snape ‘a swampy place in a field’. Smith, in his discussion of this OE word, also mentions Icelandic snap ‘a patch of scanty grass for sheep to nibble at in snow-covered fields, poor pasturage' (Smith 1956 ii, 132). See also the discussion by Maggie Scott under snapesneep, which she defines as Middle Scots (2003).

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Sneep 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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snuke 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Also snuk, snwk, snook, 'a projecting piece of land, a headland, a promontory' (DOST).

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sooty 1 historical form

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Black like soot'.

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souter 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

' A shoemaker, a cobbler'. it is most famously applied to the Souters, 'the two hills enclosing the entrance to the Cromarty Firth on the north and south, and resembling cobblers bent over their work. Cf. The Cobbler in Argyll' (SND). However, the BWK Souter is a vertical rock-stack, perhaps reminiscent of a shoemaker's needle. 

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south 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'South, south-lying'.

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southside 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

With reference to a feature lying to the south of another, similar feature. 

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spital 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A hospital’; also spitall and spittal(l), referring to an institution chiefly but not exclusively concerned with treating the sick, since the care of the poor and giving shelter to pilgrims and other travellers were also functions of the spital. Many were founded by medieval religious orders. For more discussion, see Hall 2006, 43–59 and Appendix 2 (‘List of Scottish Medieval Hospitals’).

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Spital 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

In Hutton parish (HUT).

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Spot 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

This is a hypothetical personal name (see under Spottiswoode WRR). Despite the fact that Williamson states that OE Spot occurs as a personal name in Searle’s Onom., as well as Spothild (f.), neither of these names appears in the PASE Database.

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Spottiswoode 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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spring 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A spring (of water)'. 

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St Anthony 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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St Baithéne 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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St John ns 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

St John (non-specific).

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St John's (Newfoundland) 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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St Leonard 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

'Supposedly a 6th century mionk and hermit at Noblac, near Limoges, France. His cult is first known from the 11th century, after which it becomes popular, and his cult is linked to the patronage of prisoners (and also pregnant women), with a narrative link to the crusades which may have influenced its growth. ODS. Leonard’s cult was popular in western Europe from the 11th century. There is a Life of c1025 according to which he was a Frankish noble who converted to Christianity; he became a monk at Micy, and a hermit at Noblac where, though his help, the wife of Clovis I (founder of the Merovingian dynasty) gave birth in safety to a male child. Through Clovis’s endowment, the abbey of Noblac was founded. Here Leonard died and was buried. His cult spread from France to England, Italy and Bavaria He may have lived in the 6th century but his historical existence is not proved. He was patron of pregnant women and captives. ODS, 320.' Taken from https://www.saintsplaces.gla.ac.uk/saint.php?id=556

In Scotland he is especially associated with the care of the sick more generally, and is the patron saint of several hospitals.

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St Mary  1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender F

Mary the mother of Jesus also known as the Blessed Virgin Mary (BVM).

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stack 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

This has a range of meanings, from the topographical, 'a tall column of rock rising out of the sea in front of a cliff of which it had originally formed part till separated by weathering' (SND), to the agricultural and domestic, 'a pile of grain or other crop; a pile of peat' (SND).

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Stainrigg 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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stān 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A stone'; sometimes used of a standing stone.

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stand 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: V

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stane 9 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'(A) stone'.

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statue 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A statue'.

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stead 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

‘A farmhouse and its outbuildings, a steading’.

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stede 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘An area of land, a landed property or estate, a farm. Also schepestede, a stretch of land grazed by sheep (see s(c)hep(e) n. 5 a (2)). .... There is particularly frequent reference to lands in the Borders’; a. 'The site of a building or buildings, etc., a piece of land on which a building stands; an enclosed area or yard attached to a building. b. A piece of land set aside for some function which, also, might entail a building or buildings. c. Passing into a place-name. Chiefly constituting an attribute specifying the nature of the building, enterprise, etc.’ (DOST). 

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steel 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Steep bank, especially spur of a hill ridge’ (SND). Williamson discusses this element under Middle Scots steil, which she states ‘has varied meanings. Generally ... “a precipice, rock, ridge, tongue of land” (English Dialect Dictionary, J. Wright, 1898-1905). In Liddesdale the meaning is “wooded cleugh or precipice: lower part of a ridge projecting from a hill where the ground declines on each side” (Jamieson, Dictionary). The origin of the word is OE stīgol, “steep, precipitous”’. She gives various examples, such as The Steele ROX and Ashiesteel SLK but none in BWK.

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stell 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE)

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Stichill ROX 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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sting 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A wooden pole, stake, stave, bar or beam’ (DOST); ‘a pole, a long bar of wood, specifically one carried on the shoulders of two men, from which a load can be suspended by ropes or the like; a mast (of a boat); a punt-pole, etc. (see dictionary entry for other, technical meanings’ (SND).

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stob 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A stump of a tree or shrub; stake, pole' (DOST); note also the specific use in burghs of ‘a stake driven into the ground to serve as a boundary-marker, at a spot ascertained by measuring with a line (hence, once, lyne stobbis)’ (DOST). It can also refer to other objects reduced to stumps, or looking stump-like, as for example in Stob Cross (Markinch) FIF PNF 2, 395. 

In an English context Smith (1956 ii, 164) discusses *stobb as a hypothetical variant of OE stubb ‘a stub, a tree-stump’. The former is attested only in place-names e.g. Stobswood (Northumberland) (Stobbeswod 1250, cited in Ekwall 1960 (4th edn)). Note it seems to have very northern English distribution.

 

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Stobswood 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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stock 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A block of wood, a log, a tree-stump’ (SND); OSc stok(k), stock etc. ‘the trunk of a tree, chiefly as stripped of its branches; a tree stump; a block or length of wood; a log’ (DOST). It occurs several times in the compound stockbrig, later stockbridge, ‘a bridge made out of logs’, the earliest example being Stokbryg 1295 Paisley Reg., 94, with reference to a bridge near Paisley RNF.

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stone 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'(A) stone'.

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Stoneshiel 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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stony 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Stony'.

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Stony Park 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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stot 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

‘A young castrated ox, a steer, bullock, generally one of the second year and upwards’ (SND).

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strēam 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'Stream, brook, river'; rare in place-names.

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strip 3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A strip of woodland'.

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struther 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘Bog, marsh’; also strother, it occurs comparatively infrequently north of the Forth-Clyde line (see DOST under strother). It is a variant of OE strōd, ‘marshy land overgrown with brushwood’, and appears in northern English place-names as strother (see Smith 1956, under strōd and *strōðer; and Gelling and Cole 2000, 63).

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Stuart 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

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sunny 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

In most cases this probably simply refers to land ‘exposed to, warmed or illuminated by the (rays of the) sun’ (DOST under son(n)y, sun(n)y etc, 1). It may, however, sometimes have to do with the division of lands into sunny (Latin solaris) and shady (Latin umbralis) halves, quarters etc, as for example in ‘the sunny third’ (of Wester Rossie CLS FIF) (tertiam partem solarem 1611 × 1615 RMS vii no. 1171). See PNF 4, 236.

It can also be SSE.

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Swain 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

Latin Swanus.

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swan 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A swan'.

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swīn 3 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'A pig; swine’.

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swine 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A pig; swine'; also swyn(e), etc. (see DOST for a list of variant spellings).

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Swinewood 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Swinton 5 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Swinton Hill 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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syke 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A small stream'.

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telegraph 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Telegraph'.

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temple 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A temple; a temple-like structure or building'; also an antiquarian term used to associate a place with the medieval Knights Templars (later the Order of the Knights of St John). The older equivalent, Scots temple, almost always indicates land or property owned by the Order before the Reformation.

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the 2 historical forms7 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: D

'The'.

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the 3 historical forms7 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: D

'The'.

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The Castle 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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The Hirsel 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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The Kaims 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Thirlestane 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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thirlstane 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A stone with a hole through it'.

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thorny 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Filled with or composed of thorn trees or bushes' (DOST). 

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three 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Nu

'Three'.

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thrid 2 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A third; a third part'.

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Thurkil 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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þyrelstān 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A stone with a hole through it'. See Smith 1956 under þyrel 'a hole, an opening (as in a wall)'.

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þyrne 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A thorn-bush'.

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titlin 2 historical forms1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A meadow pipit', also titling (SND); in Older Scots titling can mean, besides 'meadow pipit', any small bird (DOST).

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tod 4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A fox'.

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toddle 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: V

(Of running water): 'to glide, purl, ripple' (SND).

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toft 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘The site of a house or buildings; a homestead, also apparently sometimes with reference to land ? attached to a homestead’ (DOST). In charters it is often paired with croft (Latinised ‘toftum et croftum’) which specifically relates to the land, while in this collocation toft refers exclusively to the site of the dwelling-house and attached buildings. For a wide-ranging discussion of this element in Scottish and Manx place-names, see Gammeltoft 2001.

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Tofts 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Tollis 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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tonnen 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

Compare Welsh tonnen (f) ‘skin, peel; (earth’s) surface; turf, sod, sward; bog, swamp, quagmire’ < ton (m.) ‘lea-land; turf, sward; green, lawn; (earth’s) surface’ (GPC). Owen and Morgan (2007, lxix) give W ton m/f ‘unploughed land, grassland, sward’, and do not mention tonnen.

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toun 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

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toun 8 historical forms18 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A farm, a settlement'.

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toun heid 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'The upper end or highest point of a town' (DOST); for 'town' read any collection of houses, ferm-toun, hamlet etc. 

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tower 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A tower'.

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Townhead 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Townhead of Old Cambus CPB.

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Trabrown 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Trabrown Hill 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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trev 1 place-name

Language: Brittonic (Br), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A farm; a settlement'; compare Welsh tref. See also BLITON under *treβ.

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trottand 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

This is the present participle of Scots trot 'to trot', used adjectivally.

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trow 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A troll; a mischievous sprite or fairy, a supernatural being common in Scandinavian mythology from which it passed into Shetland and Orkney folk-lore' (SND). Other instances of Lowland Scottish usage need to be found before this element can be confidently regarded as productive in Berwickshire place-names.

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tūn 19 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A farm, a settlement'.

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turf 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

Turf could be used as both fuel and building material. Also Scots. 

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Tweed 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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twin 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'(Consisting of) two; double' (DOST).

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Twin Law 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Ulfkil 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

Ulfkil or Ulkil, an Anglo-Scandinavian name (ON Úlfkell). See discussion under Oxton CHK.

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unattested personal name 1 place-name

Language: Unknown (un)

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uncertain 1 historical form11 place-names

Language: Unknown (un)

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uncertain 1 place-name

Language: Unknown (un), Part of Speech: N

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union 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Union'.

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Unknown 6 place-names

Language: Not applicable (na)

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upp 1 place-name

Language: Old English (OE)

Also up: ‘up, higher, upon’. It can be both a preposition and an adverb.

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upper 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Upper, higher-lying'; often the equivalent of Scots over.

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view 2 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

A common element in house-names coined over the past two hundred years or so. Its use is more complex than first appears. As a general rule, if it combines with the name of an object (or direction) which can be seen well from the site, that object (or direction) comes first in the name as a kind of specific element, while view comes second, e.g. Bayview, Seaview etc. Alternatively, view can come in first position to indicate a place from which there is a good view, such as The Viewfield and Viewbank. For more discussion on this element, see Place-Names of Fife vol. 5, Elements Glossary under view.

It can also refer to a view enjoyed by an individual, as in Scott's View MER.

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ville 1 place-name

Language: French (Fr), Part of Speech: N, Gender F

'A town', used in place-names also to mean a single settlement.

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Waddel 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

According to Black (1946) under Waddel, this surname derives from Wedale, the old name for Stow MLO.

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wall 6 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A well'.

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Wallace 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

A surname. In a number of Scottish place-names the surname concerned refers to William Wallace (d. 1305), prominent figure in the first Scottish war of independence in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.

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Walter 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

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wanton 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Unrestrained'; in place-names usually in combination with Scots wall 'a well', and so probably applied to a vigorously flowing well or spring.

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wardlaw 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A watch hill, a look-out hill'.

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Warlaw 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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washing 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Associated with washing'.

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Watch Water 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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water 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A river, a large burn'.

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water 2 historical forms6 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Water', usually in the sense of 'river'.

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waulkmiln 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A (water-powered) mill where the process of waulking or fulling is carried out’; fulling or waulking makes ‘cloth thick and felted by a process of soaking, beating and shrinking’ (CSD).

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weasely 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Weasel-like, intentionally misleading (OED); devious, untrustworthy'.

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wedder 4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A wether; a castrated ram'. See also SSE wether.

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Wedderburn 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

As this first appears as the name of a burn, it is fully analysed under *Wedder Burn.

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weel 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

‘A deep pool in a stream or river; an eddy, whirlpool' SND, which adds that it is also found in northern English dialect, is frequent in place-names, and gives the variants wele wiel, weal; wheel.

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weet 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Wet'.

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Weetfoot 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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well 6 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A well'.

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Wellrig 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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west 4 historical forms11 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Westerly, west-lying'.

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west 4 historical forms5 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Westerly, west-lying'.

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wester 1 historical form3 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Westerly, west-lying'.

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wester 1 historical form4 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Westerly, west-lying' (usually reciprocating with Scots easter).

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Westmains 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Westmains is now West Foulden FOU.

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Westruther 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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wether 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A wether; a castrated ram'. See also Scots wedder.

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Whalplaw 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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wheat 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Wheat'.

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Wheel Burn 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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whelp 1 historical form

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Also quhelp(e), whelp(e) and welpe ‘the young of a dog, a pup; the young of a wild animal; a cub’ (DOST).

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whin 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Gorse, furze'.

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whin 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Whin, gorse'.

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Whin Rig Hill 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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white 1 historical form5 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'White', with various connotations, for which see Place-Names of Fife 5, Elements Glossary s.v.

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white 1 historical form18 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

‘White’, earlier quhite, quhyte.

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Whitfield 2 historical forms

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Check that this is Whitfield AYT.

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Whitrig 1 historical form1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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Whitsome 2 place-names

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Parish and settlement.

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wīc 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender N

'A dwelling, a building or collection of buildings for special purposes, a farm, a dairy farm' (Smith 1956 ii, 257-63). Also 'a specialised farm, work-place, trading-place’. Originally a neuter noun, it was later treated as feminine (Bosworth-Toller AS Dictionary). This element is not mentioned in DOST or SND, although it does seem to have been used occasionally north of the Forth in a Scots-speaking milieu (see PNF 5, Elements Glossary under *wik).

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wick 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'An inlet of the sea, a small bay' (SND), also occurring in Older Scots as wick or weike, and in 17th-century English as weeke) (DOST).

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Wide Cleugh 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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widow 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A widow'; also SSE.

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wildlife reserve 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Ph

'A wildlife reserve'.

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Willie 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

A hypocoristic form of the male forename William.

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win 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Win, gain, profit'; also wyn(e) 'wealth, possessions, goods; gain, profit, income' (DOST). In a specifically agricultural context it can also mean ‘the quantity of standing corn that a team of reapers can cut while moving in one direction, generally one or two rigs taken together, according to the size of the team’ (SND).

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wind 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

Can also be SSE.

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wind 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'The wind', used in place-names of a place exposed to the wind.

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windy 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

Can also be Scots.

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Winfield 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

See Winfield Farm WHI.

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witch 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A witch'.

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Woden 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P

The name of a pagan god.

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wolf 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A wolf'.

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wood 2 historical forms36 place-names

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'A wood'. For names containing the Scots equivalent, see under wuid. Wood-names clearly coined after c.1750, especially those referring to plantings on the policies of big houses, can be assumed to be SSE rather than Scots. 

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Woodheads 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

Woodheads LAU.

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woodland 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: N

'Woodland'.

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Wormer Law 1 place-name

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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worð 2 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'An enclosure'. The element was in use from the early Anglo-Saxon period, appearing in documents as early as the 7th century. It characteristically combines with a personal name (c.75%), and was particularly productive in Northumbria. It became obsolete in the literary period, and another element has been substituted in two of the only three place-names previously known to contain it in Scotland: Cessford and Jedburgh, both in Roxburghshire. Similarly in the neighbouring county of Northumberland, wood has been substituted in at least five place-names originally from worð. (Adapted from EPNE, s.v. worð, and Nicolaisen 2001, 99-100).

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Wuddy 1 historical form

Language: Existing Name (en), Part of Speech: P

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wudu 1 historical form4 place-names

Language: Old English (OE), Part of Speech: N, Gender M

'A wood'.

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wuid 1 historical form10 place-names

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'A wood'. It is often difficult to know whether a name referring to a wood was coined in Scots or SSE, so all occurrences of this word are included under Scots wuid. Wood-names clearly coined after c.1750, especially those referring to plantings on the policies of big houses, can be assumed to be SSE rather than Scots.

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wuidy 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: Aj

'Woody; associated with wood'.

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yarl 1 place-name

Language: Scots (Sc), Part of Speech: N

'Earl'.

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yellow 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Yellow'.

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young 1 place-name

Language: Scottish Standard English (SSE), Part of Speech: Aj

'Young'.

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Ēadgar 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

An OE personal name.

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Ēadmær 1 place-name

Language: Personal Name (pn), Part of Speech: P, Gender M

An OE personal name.

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Place-name data

The place-name data featured in this resource is copyright of the University of Glasgow. Tables of data are available to download as csv files, or as JSON data from the project's API. All place-name data taken from this resource should be properly attributed. They are made available through a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. This allows users to share and adapt the materials freely with the appropriate attribution but not for commercial purposes. Please see further details of this license here: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
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Parish Boundaries

Copyright Scottish Government, contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown copyright and database right (2018). View the parish data website

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